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Conditioning novel block design construction. Conditioning Novel Behavior in Porpoises.

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Presentation on theme: "Conditioning novel block design construction. Conditioning Novel Behavior in Porpoises."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conditioning novel block design construction

2 Conditioning Novel Behavior in Porpoises

3 Behavioral Interpretation of Memory David C. Palmer

4 Experimental analysis vs. Interpretation Experimental analysis Manipulation of independent variables and study effect on DV Manipulation of independent variables and study effect on DVInterpretation Explaining a phenomenon using known principles Explaining a phenomenon using known principles Helpful in complex arrangements that may be impossible to analyze Helpful in complex arrangements that may be impossible to analyze

5 Memory? Storage metaphor Storage metaphor Traditional theories of memory appeal to experiences stored in “memory banks”, etc. Traditional theories of memory appeal to experiences stored in “memory banks”, etc. Then, we recall a memory by retrieving the experience from our “memory” Then, we recall a memory by retrieving the experience from our “memory” Memories are sometimes stored as “copies” Memories are sometimes stored as “copies”

6 Memory? Behavioral view Behavioral view Memory is a behavioral phenomenon Memory is a behavioral phenomenon Memories are stimulus control relations that survive across time Memories are stimulus control relations that survive across time For example, child learns to name “pencil”: is then able to name it the next day For example, child learns to name “pencil”: is then able to name it the next day Forgetting therefore is the weakening of a behavioral relation over time Forgetting therefore is the weakening of a behavioral relation over time

7 Memory? Another angle: The behavior of “remembering” may also be a result of problem solving Another angle: The behavior of “remembering” may also be a result of problem solvingProblem: Responses are in the repertoire Responses are in the repertoire SDs are present that signal reinforcement is forthcoming and EO is present SDs are present that signal reinforcement is forthcoming and EO is present The response is not under direct control of current stimuli The response is not under direct control of current stimuli

8 Memory? Example: What did you have for breakfast yesterday? “Pancakes” is in the repertoire as a tact “Pancakes” is in the repertoire as a tact Reinforcement is scheduled for the answer Reinforcement is scheduled for the answer But, “pancakes” has not been conditioned directly to “What did you have for breakfast yesterday” – not an intraverbal But, “pancakes” has not been conditioned directly to “What did you have for breakfast yesterday” – not an intraverbal To emit the response, two elements must obtain: 1) Person must get supplementary stimuli to evoke response, and 2) must recognize it as correct To emit the response, two elements must obtain: 1) Person must get supplementary stimuli to evoke response, and 2) must recognize it as correct

9 Memory? Exploratory VB – self probes Exploratory VB – self probes “What did I do yesterday? Hmm… got up, took a shower, and then… oh yes, I made some cereal “What did I do yesterday? Hmm… got up, took a shower, and then… oh yes, I made some cereal Conditioned seeing Conditioned seeing Assume that perceptual behavior (seeing) is conditioned as we emit it and can be evoked by accompanying stimuli Assume that perceptual behavior (seeing) is conditioned as we emit it and can be evoked by accompanying stimuli That is, we may “see” ourselves coming out of the shower, going to the kitchen, and getting the cereal That is, we may “see” ourselves coming out of the shower, going to the kitchen, and getting the cereal

10 Memory? Conditioned seeing (cont’d) Conditioned seeing (cont’d) Note that conditioned seeing is evoked by current stimuli that may be associated with the seeing – “Now what did I do this AM…”  We“see” the kitchen and some of the stimuli that were present Note that conditioned seeing is evoked by current stimuli that may be associated with the seeing – “Now what did I do this AM…”  We“see” the kitchen and some of the stimuli that were present How do we recognize that it is correct? We may respond to its strength: “I am sure that I had cereal” We may respond to its strength: “I am sure that I had cereal” The conditioned seeing may evoke other vivid conditioned seeing that is strong to confirm The conditioned seeing may evoke other vivid conditioned seeing that is strong to confirm

11 Memory? Main point: to remember is to provide supplementary stimuli to yourself using exploratory VB and conditioned seeing Main point: to remember is to provide supplementary stimuli to yourself using exploratory VB and conditioned seeing

12 End

13 Comps (Faux)

14 You are discussing a case with a VE teacher who is taking her first course in the ABA sequence at FIT. The issue at hand is a kid’s tantrums. The teacher explains the tantrums in the following way: “He is having these tantrums because of frustration.” What kind of faulty explanation is this? Please describe the feedback that you would provide to her.

15 You decide to work on the case described above. The descriptive analysis information suggests that the tantrums occur because in the past, such behavior has been followed by attention. Design an FA that would test this hypothesis.

16 Critique the following: “The data shows that the behavior has improved quite dramatically.”

17 You have a client who is taking Valium for anxiety. The mother has decided that the drug causes too much sedation, and immediately terminates the drug administration. What are the main effects of drug? Withdrawal syndrome? Possible risk events? How does Valium work?

18 Memory EO Conditioned seeing Problem Emotion Meaning Anxiety Self control (Skinner) Rate Epigentics Punctuated equilibrium Pairwise FA Diphtheria 3 levels of selection Personality trait “I wanna be sedated…” ½ life of drug DOE FCN Extinction COD Self control (Lab) Conc superstition RTE Spontaneous recovery Functional equivalence Operant Most to least Uh Oh…

19 “Behaviorists Think That We Don’t Have Emotion! Bad Behaviorists!”

20 End of Faux Comps #1

21 Comps (Faux) #2

22 “Behaviorists Don’t Deal with Thinking!”

23 You are working with a teacher who is teaching the letters of the alphabet. She is using cards with the letter and a picture of an item that if spelled out, would start with the letter in question. For example, the “A” card has an apple on it, the “B” card has a bat on it, etc. The kids are responding well to each card. The teacher asks you one day “Hey I wonder if the kids are attending to the letter or the picture of each card?” First, explain to her what “attention” means. Then, design an experiment that will answer her question. Finally, what EAB study provides the basis for your experiment?

24 “Behaviorists Don’t Consider Feelings!”

25 You are working with a 40 year old male who exhibits aggression and property destruction. There is a behavior program in place to address the behaviors, and there is a full complement of medications. One of the meds is Risperdol. What class is the drug? You are discussing the med with staff, and wish to alert them about possible side effects. What are these? What NT is involved?

26 You design a Tx package that involves a DRI schedule in which attention is delivered for staying on task for a period of time (e.g., 5 minutes). How is the DRI interval set? Set up an experiment that would show the Tx is effective Set up an experiment that disentangles the attention from the contingency between staying on task and attention

27 PR 50 Reversal design Projection Formal probe Dependent variable Verbal summator Punishment contrast Conditioned suppression Creativity source Projective tests Operant seeing Wit Exact count IOA Behavior momentum Emotional operations Taste aversion AO Tact private events Inductive reasoning Values Correlational study 4 humours Measure: following directions Positive contrast IRT Constructional approach Resp extinction Time delay prompt fading Uh Oh…

28 End Faux Comps #2

29 Comps (Faux) #3

30 IOA vs Accuracy

31 Critique the following: “The criteria for the experiment was changed, and it was modified by the experimenter.”

32 Elements of program organized by function…

33 Critique the following: “The experimenter re-designed the study quickly, and then began anew.”

34 Case #1: There is a case on which you are consulting. The client is a 25 year old female who frequently throws items in the house. The have been many functional analyses of the behavior over the years, but there are no conclusive results. However, one hypothesis is that the behavior produces automatic reinforcement in the form of the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor. Design an FA to test this hypothesis. Do not try and separate the effects of the sight vs the sound of the item hitting the floor. Only test whether or not that event, the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor, is maintaining the behavior.

35 Explanations: You are working on a case with another graduate student in ABA. A particularly difficult situation is being discussed, and the behavior involves some elopement. Your friend explains the behavior with statements such as this: “She is running away to get some PVC pipes that her neighbor has in his garage.” Critique this explanation of behavior, and offer an alternative explanation.

36 Critique the following: The data were graphed by the behavior analyst very precisely.

37 Factors that influence RTE

38 Pattern in FR 50 FI 1’ Holz & Azrin view of pun Conditioned suppression Hold responsible Drug as EO 3 levels of selection When we give credit 4 facts about drugs Draw negative contrast “…I’m in need of some restraint…” Mean count per interval IOA Drug as a positive reinf Rights Reinforcement trap Brief FA Drug as AO Behavioral view of drug abuse Conc FR 50 VI 1’ Pairwise FA Resurgence 3 characteristics of graphed data Relationship Multiple probe Endorphin theory of SIB Siegel morphine tolerance We feel free when… Yikes…

39 The End

40 Comps (Faux) #4

41 Case #1 You are working in a vocational training center with several staff who are charged with implementing a behavior program. You are interested in treatment fidelity (or integrity). You have a procedure that you think will improve fidelity that involves feedback and incentives. Design an experiment that will test the efficacy of the treatment on Tx fidelity.

42 Real life respondent conditioning: Diagram an example of respondent conditioning using the relevant terms.

43 “Why do people get depressed?”

44 Case #2: There is a case on which you are consulting. The client is a 25 year old female who frequently throws items in the house. The have been many functional analyses of the behavior over the years, but there are no conclusive results. However, one hypothesis is that the behavior produces automatic reinforcement in the form of the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor. Design an FA to test this hypothesis. Do not try and separate the effects of the sight vs the sound of the item hitting the floor. Only test whether or not that event, the sight/sound of the item hitting the floor, is maintaining the behavior.

45 “Behavior analysts don’t believe in freedom”

46 NCR mechanism of effect Diff between neg pun & ext Diff between EO and SD 2 repertoires in problem Program generalization DRH x 2 Concept formation Adjusting ratio Escape/avoid hierarchy 3 characteristics of behavior Sequence analysis Independent group Behavioral analyst S DP Reification Intrinsic motivation Anger Repression Encourage maintenance Back chaining MSWO PSI Momentary DRO Interdependent group DRL x 2 Reactivity Systematic replication Trigger analysis Nominal fallacy Divided attention I knew this would happen…

47 Design a reinforcer assessment of attention from parent

48 One of the key concepts in behavior analysis is the operant. Do the following: Give an example of an operant using all 4 terms. Give an example of a given response that belongs to more than one operant.

49 Sensory defensiveness

50 “Behavior analysts deny the existence of the mind”

51 “Behavior analysts can’t explain creative achievements”

52 The End

53 Comps (Faux) #5

54 You are collecting rate data on a problem behavior (e.g., aggression), and a 2 nd observer is also collecting data. Demonstrate (draw the bins, etc) the mean count-per-interval method to compute the IOA. You don’t have to use a large number of intervals, as 5 will suffice.

55 You are in a discussion of reinforcement. The discussant informs you that the use of artificial reinforcers is ill-advised. Indeed, he argues that reinforcers devalue intrinsic motivation. Your response to this is…

56 Behaviorists are all wrong. Their data and procedures are based on studying rats and pigeons, for goodness sake!

57 Mand training: Therapist holds up a food item and asks “What do you want?”

58 Relationship Coercion Tan FT 3’ DRO 1’ Celeration Latency Competency based training Within subject yoking Transitivity Task interspersal Superstitious behavior Spatial fading Delayed prompts Lab example of self control Response differentiation Modeling Mix FR 50 FI 2’ Pyramid model of training Staff training: Procedures Counter control 2 targets of monitoring How to get maintenance VT Between subject yoking Reflexivity Metaphor Stimulus generalization Simultaneous prompts Shadowing Schedule induced behavior Ratio strain Ready, set, go…

59 The End

60 Comps (Faux) #6

61 Social Validity

62 Group contingencies

63 Incidental teaching Atypical anti-pychotics W/D from alcohol Pattern of FI Teach point to A vs B errorlessly Differential reinforcement Behavioral momentum Functional goals WIR Response class co-variation Intermingle of contingencies of reinf and survival Operant seeing Chain FR 50 FR 100 Agonist General case analysis MDRO DRH x2 Direct instruction Contingent effort Informed consent Fair pair Celeration computation PIR IOA Permanent product Analysis vs interpretation Conditioned seeing Ready, set, go…

64 Treatment of self stimulatory behavior

65 Behavioral interpretation of memory

66 Assessment of high intensity problem behavior

67

68

69 Techniques of governmental control

70 The End

71 Chapter 19: Thinking  Advantages of VB:  Extends senses of listener  Extends action possibilities of speaker

72 Chapter 19: Thinking  A full account of VB must include “covert verbal behavior”:  Covert VB is involved in problem solving, thinking, etc.  Why is VB sometimes covert?  May avoid punishment  Less effort  Controlling variables may be weak

73 Chapter 19: Thinking  Thinking:  Is behavior!  Can be overt or covert  Involves speaking and listening by the same person  Is behavior that produces its own reinforcement

74 Chapter 19: Thinking  Example:  Someone tells you that your client is having some major tantrums. You observe the tantrums and engage in some thinking.

75 Chapter 19: Thinking  Visualize the tantrums, the antecedents, and consequences that you just saw.  Tacts of what you are seeing: “hmm, the kid was in task…and the therapist put him in timeout…”

76 Chapter 19: Thinking  Intraverbals arise from tacts: “Now if he is in timeout, maybe that is reinforcing tantrums”  The intraverbals evoke visualizations of previous cases of tantrums in task in which escape extinction was used

77 Chapter 19: Thinking  You ask yourself out loud: “Hey, is there any other evidence of tantrums that escape tasks with this kid?”  You respond with: “Yep, I saw a couple in his classroom”  These behaviors end with “These tantrums produce escape!”

78 Chapter 19: Thinking  Main point: Thinking is behavior and has NO special properties that set it apart from other behavior.


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