Presentation on theme: "World War I The Legacy of World War I Vocabulary League of Nations: an organization set up after World War I to settle international disputes Fourteen."— Presentation transcript:
Vocabulary League of Nations: an organization set up after World War I to settle international disputes Fourteen Points: President Woodrow Wilson’s goals for peace after World War I Treaty of Versailles: a 1919 treaty that ended World War I reparations: money a defeated nation pays for the destruction caused by a war Red Scare: in 1919-1920, a wave of panic from a fear of a communist revolution Palmer Raids: in 1920, federal agents and police raided homes of suspected radicals
Fourteen Points – Wilson’s Peace Plan It called for smaller military forces, end to secret treaties, freedom of the seas, and free trade. It also called for changes in national boundaries – new countries would be formed. The most important point was the formation of the League of Nations – a group of nations that would peacefully settle disputes. He thought this would bring “peace without victory”.
Senator Henry Cabot Lodge Opposition to the League of Nations
Edith Wilson 1919 cross country speaking tour to build support for the League of Nations. He traveled 10,000 miles in 21 days and gave over 30 speeches. Suffered a stroke from which he never fully recovered. His wife continued his efforts.
David Lloyd George Great Britain George Clemenceau France Woodrow Wilson USA Treaty of Versailles Leaders He wanted revenge, and to punish the Germans for what they had done. He wanted to make Germany pay for the damage done during the war. He also wanted to weaken Germany, so France would never be invaded again. He was a History professor. He wanted to make the world safe. He wanted to end war by making a fair peace. In 1918, Wilson published ‘Fourteen Points’ saying what he wanted. He said that he wanted disarmament, and a League of Nations (where countries could talk out their problems, without war). He also promised self- determination for the peoples of Eastern Europe. He said he would ‘make Germany pay’ – because he knew that was what the British people wanted to hear. He wanted ‘justice’, but he did not want revenge. He said that the peace must not be harsh – that would just cause another war in a few years time. He tried to get a ‘halfway point’ – a compromise between Wilson and Clemenceau. He ALSO wanted to expand the British Empire, maintain British control of the seas, and increase Britain's trade.
Peace talk meeting in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles Versailles Palace
Terms of the Treaty of Versailles Germany was forced to take full blame for the war Germany had to pay $33 billion in reparations New European countries were formed from the German, Austrian- Hungary, and Ottoman Empire German lost all their overseas colonies The German army was limited to a maximum of 100,000 men, and a ban placed upon the use of heavy artillery, gas, tanks and aircraft. League of Nations was established to settle future wars
Europe Before World War I Europe After World War I
Post War Labor Strikes During the war the US government banned strikes for fear it would shut down the factories that produced war supplies. Once the war was over, these restrictions were lifted. Many Americans felt this was the work of radicals who wanted to change things in our country. They feared “the radicals” would try and take over the country. They compared it to the communist take over of Russia. This fear was called the Red Scare because communists were called Reds. The fact that bombs were delivered to government officials only increased these fears.
Attorney General Mitchell Palmer Head of General Intelligence J. Edgar Hoover Palmer Raids
Racial Tensions Increase 1919 Chicago Race Riot The riot began on July 27, after an African-American youth named Eugene Williams, while swimming with friends in Lake Michigan near 29th Street, strayed into an area informally reserved for the exclusive use of white bathers. For this, Williams was pelted with stones by an unruly group of young white men and soon drowned. When the police ignored eyewitness accounts of the event and refused to arrest those responsible for the boy's death, indignant crowds of blacks gathered in protest. Distorted accounts of the incident inflamed already tense relations between black and white Chicagoans. For the next two weeks, gangs of unruly whites and mobs of outraged blacks clashed with one another in sporadic fighting across the city's South Side. On the fourth day of rioting, the state militia was deployed to restore order, but the fighting continued. In the end, the violence claimed the lives of 38 Chicagoans: 23 blacks, 15 whites. Additionally, over 500 were injured. And hundreds of families lost everything when their homes were torched by rioters. Brick-wielding Whites in Pursuit of a Black Victim, 1919
Longing for “Normalcy” Warren G. Harding Results of the Boston Police Strike
Page 296 1.Why did Germany resent the Treaty of Versailles? Germany resented the Treaty of Versailles because it forced Germany to accept blame for the war and demanded they pay reparations. 2. Why did Lodge and other Republicans oppose joining the League of Nations? They opposed joining the League of Nations because they thought it force the United States to go to War. 3. What caused the Red Scare? Who was the most affected by it? The Red Scare was caused by the fear that strikes and mail bombs were signs of a Communist revolution. Foreigners and radicals were the most affected by the Red Scare.