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Fig 56.21 Restoration Ecology- human involvement in recovering from a disturbance.

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Presentation on theme: "Fig 56.21 Restoration Ecology- human involvement in recovering from a disturbance."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fig Restoration Ecology- human involvement in recovering from a disturbance.

2 Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta- Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp – 1124 Looked at the results of 89 different ecological restorations.

3 Tbl 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp Types of Disturbances: Cessation of prescribed burning; Cultivation and cropping; Disturbance, excavation, or burial of Substrate; Eutrophication; Hydrological disruption; Invasion by non- native species; Logging of trees; Over-grazing; Removal of carnivores or herbivores; Soil contamination Restoration action: Cessation of degrading action only (passive restoration); Extirpation of damaging species (including non-natives); Nutrient removal; Planting of forbs or grasses; Planting of trees; Reinstatement of burning; Reintroduction of herbivores or carnivores; Remodeling of topography; Soil amendments

4 Fig 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp (goods) (nutrients and primary production) (climate, water, etc)

5 Fig 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp

6 Fig 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp Restoration recovered 86% of biodiversity and 80% of combined ecosystem services compared to non- disturbed systems.

7 Restoring ecosystems can also be seen as directly benefiting people, “Restoration Marketplace” Restoration Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets M A Palmer and S Filoso Science 31 July 2009: Vol no. 5940, pp

8 “Restoration Marketplace” Might lead to sub-standard restoration Restoration Restoration of Ecosystem Services for Environmental Markets M A Palmer and S Filoso Science 31 July 2009: Vol no. 5940, pp

9 Fig 1: Enhancement of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services by Ecological Restoration: A Meta-Analysis J M Rey Benayas, A C Newton, A Diaz, J M Bullock Science 28 August 2009: Vol no. 5944, pp What limits the success of restoration?

10 One problem... Invasive Species

11 What limits the success of restoration? One problem... Invasive Species...biotic thresholds resulting from species invasions are likely to be difficult to reverse and have long-term consequences for restoration projects. Species Invasions and the Limits to Restoration: Learning from the New Zealand Experience David A. Norton Science 31 July 2009: Vol no. 5940, pp

12 Why are species going extinct? "Global Biodiversity" Chapman & Hall, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, London, 1992

13 CB 55.6 Invasive species can disrupt an ecosystem

14 The brown tree snake (Boiga irregularis) Its native in Australia and was introduced to Guam accidentally in the 1950’s Overall responsible for the extinction of 3 out of 4 seabirds; 9 out of 13 forest birds; 3-5 out 12 reptile species on the Island of Guam. This snake caused the extirpation or serious reduction of most of the island's 25 resident bird species on the main island of Guam.

15 Nile Perch (Lates niloticus) Introduced to Lake Victoria in 1954 to increase fish yield Caused extinction of 200+ endemic fish species through predation, and competition Fish caused indirect increased erosion on land, causing higher nutrient levels in the lake.

16 Water Hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) Introduced as ornamental plant around the world Now in 50 countries on 5 continents including US In California it replaced the native pennywort (Hydrocotyle umbellata) which occupies a similar habitat, leading to a marked decrease in invertebrate communities Limits water transport, reduces oxygen and light levels in the water

17 Zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) Spread from its native range in the Baltic Sea via ballast water Spreads in Europe and North America Kills native molluscs, changes ecosystems, and damages infrastructure Estimated annual damage in US $3 billion Napela T.F., Schloesser, D.W., 1992

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19 How Many Invasive Species Are There in Texas?  67 terrestrial plants  12 aquatic/wetland plants  10 mammals  4 birds  7 fishes  11 insects  11 mollusks and crustaceans

20 Hydrilla verticillata Aquatic invader covering nearly 100,000 surface acres of water in Texas. Spreads rapidly, in one Texas lake it covered 23 acres in 1999 but over 200 in Depletes water of oxygen and blocks sunlight killing off many native plants and animal species.

21 Hydrilla on Longhorn dam over Town Lake

22 The level of Lake Austin is lowered in winter to kill the hydrilla and other invasive plants

23 Why are species going extinct? "Global Biodiversity" Chapman & Hall, World Conservation Monitoring Centre, London, 1992

24 Ecological Restoration benefits on a large scale Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp

25 Storm surge, damage, and deaths were less where coastal wetlands are intact Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp

26 Future storm damage could be reduced by reestablishing coastal wetlands. Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp

27 Future storm damage could be reduced by reestablishing coastal wetlands, cost $5-$17 billion Restoration of the Mississippi Delta: Lessons from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita J W Day, Jr et al.Science 23 March 2007: Vol no. 5819, pp

28 Next: How many animals do you want/need to save?


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