Presentation on theme: "POLITICS OF THE ROARING TWENTIES Chapter 20 AMERICANS STRUGGLE WITH POSTWAR ISSUES Section 1."— Presentation transcript:
POLITICS OF THE ROARING TWENTIES Chapter 20
AMERICANS STRUGGLE WITH POSTWAR ISSUES Section 1
How did World War I affect America?
The end of WWI hurt the economy : Returning soldiers took jobs away from women & minorities …OR… Returning soldiers took jobs away from women & minorities …OR… Returning soldiers faced unemployment themselves. Returning soldiers faced unemployment themselves.
NATIVISM & ISOLATIONISM Swept over America as people became suspicious of foreigners & wanted to pull away from world affairs
FEAR OF COMMUNISM Americans saw Communism as a threat to their way of life
Communists came to power in Russia through violent revolution: Communism is an economic & political system that supports government control over property.
WWI created economic & political problems in Russia… 1917, the Russian czar (Nicholas II) stepped down & a group of revolutionaries called Bolsheviks took power.
Bolshevik Revolution 1917
New Leadership in Russia (Soviet Union)… Vladimir I. Lenin
This new government called for worldwide revolution.. Communist leaders wanted workers to seize political & economic power They wanted to overthrow capitalism.
The “RED SCARE” In the U.S., about 70,000 people joined the Communist Party. Still, the ideas of the communists, or “Reds”, frightened many people
“PALMER RAIDS”… Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer set up an agency in the Justice Dept. to arrest communists, socialists, & anarchists (later became FBI). Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer set up an agency in the Justice Dept. to arrest communists, socialists, & anarchists (later became FBI).
Palmer’s raids trampled on people’s rights…especially radicals. Many were sent out of the country w/out trial.
SACCO & VANZETTI Two Italian immigrants who were arrested for robbery & murder in Massachusetts. Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco (Dedham courthouse, 1923)
Sacco & Vanzetti were admitted anarchists but… Denied committing any crime. The case against them was weak & they were convicted anyway JUDGE WEBSTER THAYER
Many protested the conviction…They believed it was based on a fear of foreigners.
Sacco & Vanzetti executed in 1927 Death Watch in Union Square, New York Funeral Procession Sacco and Vanzetti death masks
LIMITING IMMIGRATION… How did Americans show their Nativist feelings? Immigrants at Ellis Island
Some Americans used the Red Scare as an excuse to act against people who were different. Example was the Ku Klux Klan.
QUOTA SYSTEM: Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of Congress passed the Emergency Quota Act of Set a limit on how many immigrants from each country could enter the U.S. each year. Set a limit on how many immigrants from each country could enter the U.S. each year. In 1924, a new quota limited immigration from Eastern & Southern Europe…mostly Jews & Roman Catholics. In 1924, a new quota limited immigration from Eastern & Southern Europe…mostly Jews & Roman Catholics.
1924, Immigration from Japan banned.
3 MAJOR STRIKES IN 1919 (Strikes were not allowed during World War I)
1) Boston police officers strike for a living wage. The cost of living had doubled since their last raise. Mass. Governor Calvin Coolidge used force to put down the strike.
2) Steelworker strike at U.S. Steel Corporation. Workers demanded right to join unions. 1923, report revealed harsh conditions in steel mills. Public opinion turned against steel companies & workers were given an 8 hour day….Still had no union.
3) United Mine Workers Strike Led by John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers. Led by John L. Lewis, president of the United Mine Workers. President Wilson tried to help settle the dispute b/w miners & mine owners. President Wilson tried to help settle the dispute b/w miners & mine owners. Miners got higher wages, but didn’t get shorter hours. Miners got higher wages, but didn’t get shorter hours. John L. Lewis
Overall, the 1920’s was a bad time for unions. Union membership declined from 5 million to 3.5 million. WHY?
1) I mmigrants were willing to work in poor conditions 2) L anguage barriers made organizing people difficult 3) F armers who had migrated to cities were used to relying on themselves 4) M ost unions excluded African Americans.
THE HARDING PRESIDENCY Section 2 Personal: First Lady: Florence "Flossie" Mabel Kling Harding, Wife Number of Children: 1 Education Level: College School Attended: Ohio Central College Religion: Baptist Profession: Teacher, Insurance Salesman, Reporter, Publisher
Washington Naval Conference 1921 President Warren G. Harding invited several major world powers.
DISARMAMENT: At the Conference, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes urged that no more warships be built for 10 years. At the Conference, Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes urged that no more warships be built for 10 years. Hughes also urged that the 5 major naval powers (U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France & Italy) scrap many of their existing warships Hughes also urged that the 5 major naval powers (U.S., Great Britain, Japan, France & Italy) scrap many of their existing warships
Kellogg-Briand Pact nations signed that they giving up war as national policy Frank B. KelloggFrank B. Kellogg, U.S. Secretary of State
U.S. still wanted France & Britain to repay $ borrowed during WWI
Fordney-McCumber Tariff of 1922 Tariff protected American business from foreign competition. But the tariff made it impossible for Britain & France to sell their goods in the U.S.
The DAWES PLAN
Under the Dawes Plan …. U.S. loaned $ to Germany to pay back Britain & France U.S. loaned $ to Germany to pay back Britain & France Then Britain & France repaid U.S. Then Britain & France repaid U.S. So….the U.S. ended up getting paid w/its own $!
Scandal Hits Harding’s Administration… Some of his cabinet appointments caused problems…… They were part of the so-called “OHIO GANG”
TEAPOT DOME SCANDAL Involved pieces of land called Teapot Dome & Elk Hills Involved pieces of land called Teapot Dome & Elk Hills Was owned by the government & held large reserves of oil. Was owned by the government & held large reserves of oil.
Harding’s secretary of the interior, Albert B. Fall, secretly leased the land to 2 oil companies He received $ & property in return.
President Harding wasn’t charged w/corruption himself…. He suddenly died in 1923 & Calvin Coolidge became president.
THE BUSINESS OF AMERICA Section 3
The new president, Calvin Coolidge said… “The chief business of the American people is business”
The AUTOMOBILE changed the American landscape….
New roads were built. New businesses sprang up like gas stations, repair shops, public garages, motels, tourist camps & shopping centers.
Cities in Ohio & Michigan grew as major centers of automobile manufacturing.
States that produced OIL such as California & Texas also prospered.
The automobile also became a status symbol. Everyone wanted to have one. By the late 1920’s, about 80% of all the cars in the world were in the U.S ROLLS-ROYCE
URBAN SPRAWL (Cities spread out in all directions) Cars ended isolation of rural families & gave young people & women more independence. Cars also made it possible for people to live farther from their jobs.
The airline industry also grew. Planes carried the nation’s mail. Passenger service began.
AMERICA’S STANDARD OF LIVING SOARS!!! How did the American household change?
Spread of ELECTRICITY caused a major change. In the 1920’s, electric power stretched beyond big cities to the suburbs.
Americans began to use all kinds of electrical appliances…. Radios, washing machines, & vacuum cleaners became popular. These appliances made housework easier.
Resulted in more leisure time for families and….
Increase in the number of women working outside the home. Nursing in the 1920’s
More consumer goods appeared on the market. Businesses used advertising to sell goods. They used Psychology…tried to use people’s desire for youth, beauty, & popularity to sell products.
Business people formed organizations to do charity work. They also formed organizations to promote business.
The National income rose from $64 billion in 1921 to $87 billion in Most businesses seemed to make fortunes. The stock market reached new heights.
THE SUPERFICIAL PROSPERITY OF THE 1920’s What hidden problems did the economy have?
1) Business wasn’t as healthy as it seemed: Large businesses bought up or merged w/smaller ones. Large businesses bought up or merged w/smaller ones. But as businesses grew, business managers made much more $ than workers did. But as businesses grew, business managers made much more $ than workers did. Also, mining companies, railroads, & farms weren’t doing well. Also, mining companies, railroads, & farms weren’t doing well.
2) Consumer debt rose to high levels : Businesses encouraged customers to buy on the INSTALLMENT PLAN. Businesses encouraged customers to buy on the INSTALLMENT PLAN. Banks provided $ at low interest rates. Banks provided $ at low interest rates. Average Americans were spending more $ than they actually had. Average Americans were spending more $ than they actually had.