Presentation on theme: "THE RED SCARE 14.1. Russian Revolution Part 1 = March 1917Part 1 = March 1917 –WWI goes badly for Russia –Czar Nicholas II abdicates New Russian leader."— Presentation transcript:
THE RED SCARE 14.1
Russian Revolution Part 1 = March 1917Part 1 = March 1917 –WWI goes badly for Russia –Czar Nicholas II abdicates New Russian leader = Alex KerenskyNew Russian leader = Alex Kerensky –Pledges to remain in WWI –This is very unpopular. –Russians start looking to more radical ideas.
Russian Revolution Part 2 = November 1917Part 2 = November 1917 –Lenin promises “peace, land, and bread” –Bolsheviks (“majority”) Peace with GermanyPeace with Germany –Out of WWI Civil war ensuesCivil war ensues –Reds vs. Whites –Reds win in 1920, establish USSR
Russian Communism Openly hostile to American beliefsOpenly hostile to American beliefs –The gov’t owned all land and property. –A single political party controlled the gov’t. –The needs of the country always took priority over the rights of individuals. “Communism cannot be isolated or it will fail. IT MUST EXPAND WORLDWIDE.”“Communism cannot be isolated or it will fail. IT MUST EXPAND WORLDWIDE.”
Russian Communism Lenin dies in Stalin takes over.Lenin dies in Stalin takes over. –Forces peasants onto collectivized farms –Use of terror to do so –Great famine resulted. –Estimates of 3-60 million killed
Russian Communism Is this fear justified?Is this fear justified? –It seems to be isolated on the other side of the world.
Communist spread? Is fear of communism justified?Is fear of communism justified? –Hungary goes communist –Germany almost goes communist
US Response During WWI, bombs sent to court buildings, police stations, churches, homesDuring WWI, bombs sent to court buildings, police stations, churches, homes –Tied to violent immigrant anarchist groups –BOI (FBI) begins to track their movements Approved by President Woodrow Wilson In 1919:In 1919: –1,000s go on strike in Seattle –More mail bombs sent to US gov’t officials Including Seattle mayor –Espionage Act passed (draft, etc.)
Schenck v. U.S. Charles Schenck mailed anti-draft letters.Charles Schenck mailed anti-draft letters. –Jewish-American socialist w/ sympathies toward Germany –Secretary of local Socialist Party –Sent 15,000 leaflets urging potential draftees to refuse to serve Calls on the 13 th Amendment Serving in military = “involuntary servitude”
Schenck v. U.S. Arrested & convicted under Espionage ActArrested & convicted under Espionage Act 6 months –“The question in every case is whether the words are used in such circumstances and are of such a nature as to create a clear and present danger that they will bring about the substantive evils that Congress has a right to prevent.” –“The most stringent protection of free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater and causing a panic.” Unanimously upheld by Supreme CourtUnanimously upheld by Supreme Court
More Bombs June 1919, bombs detonate in 8 citiesJune 1919, bombs detonate in 8 cities –1 near FDR –1 at USAG Alexander Palmer’s house Seen as “continuation” of Russian RevolutionSeen as “continuation” of Russian Revolution
More Bombs These bombs were sent by 1 specific group, led by Luigi Galleani.These bombs were sent by 1 specific group, led by Luigi Galleani. Bombs came w/ a note:Bombs came w/ a note: –“Class war… You were the first to wage it… The darkness of your laws… There will have to be bloodshed, murder… We will destroy to rid the world of your tyrannical institutions.”
Palmer Raids Alexander PalmerAlexander Palmer –Assassination attempts made 2x “hyphenated Americans… poured the poison of disloyalty into the very arteries of our national life: such creatures of passion, disloyalty, and anarchy must be crushed out” -Woodrow Wilson
Palmer Raids Palmer begins to raid houses of suspected communists, socialists, and anarchists.Palmer begins to raid houses of suspected communists, socialists, and anarchists. –“Any movement, however cloaked or dissembled, designed to undermine the government, will be met with unflinching, persistent, aggressive warfare.” Palmer arrests 10,000 from Nov to Jan. 1920Palmer arrests 10,000 from Nov to Jan –Luigi Galleani was deported along w/ 8 others. –Dec. 1919: 249 Russian radicals deported on “Soviet Ark” –Jan. 1920: 6,000 arrested (mostly IWW) 4,000 in one night
Public Opinion Falls Palmer announces a Communist revolution on May 1, 1920.Palmer announces a Communist revolution on May 1, –The public gears up. Nothing happened.Nothing happened. –People realize the lack of threat. –People realize the disregard for civil liberties. –People realize they don’t like Palmer.
Exported Immigrants Many of the deported radicals became loyal citizens of the USSR…Many of the deported radicals became loyal citizens of the USSR… …until Stalin had most of them shot in the 1930s as potential traitors.…until Stalin had most of them shot in the 1930s as potential traitors.
Sacco & Vanzetti Accused of robbery & murder ARRESTED (~$16,000 from shoe factory)Accused of robbery & murder ARRESTED (~$16,000 from shoe factory) –Italian anarchists had already been red-flagged for the better part of a decade. –They were radicals and Italian. –They were followers of Luigi Galleani.
Sacco & Vanzetti Convicted & executed.Convicted & executed. Riots of protest in London, Paris, and Germany.Riots of protest in London, Paris, and Germany. Seen as result of the Red Scare.Seen as result of the Red Scare.
Feeding the Fear Labor strikes rose from 175 / month to 370 / month during 1919.Labor strikes rose from 175 / month to 370 / month during –Cause: Communist agitators? (probably not) –Cause: poor labor conditions (initial post-war recession) Standard of living had declined since WWI because of inflation and static wages.Standard of living had declined since WWI because of inflation and static wages.
Boston Police Strike No pay increase since beginning of WWINo pay increase since beginning of WWI –Steps to form a union; 19 fired –Entire police force strikes –Riots broke out. Massachusetts governor Calvin Coolidge:Massachusetts governor Calvin Coolidge: –“There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” –Called out volunteer force and state guard
“Crime against civilization” End of the strikeEnd of the strike –Coolidge hires an entirely new police force (mostly returning servicemen) –New force gets higher wages, more vacation days, and city-provided uniforms –Striking former-officers were denied reentry
Strikes Steel and Coal workers strike also.Steel and Coal workers strike also. –Most strikes are blamed on communists. –Most Americans opposed unions & strikes (seen as anti-America & violent) Strikes declined as the economy improves in 1920.Strikes declined as the economy improves in 1920.