Presentation on theme: "Post WWI and the Roaring 20’s. Nativism Rises as a Result of Post WWI Anxiety Nativism- desire to protect “Old Stock” Americans from immigrants and those."— Presentation transcript:
Nativism Rises as a Result of Post WWI Anxiety Nativism- desire to protect “Old Stock” Americans from immigrants and those that possess other differences Causes Inflation and economic Recession which resulted from Demobilization of WWI. Racial/ Ethnic tensions grow as white boys began competing for Jobs filled by minorities and immigrants during the war. Russian Revolution led to fear of Communists(Red Scare) Economic turmoil leads to worker strikes- strikes seen as “communist” Immigration -By 1921 Immigration levels had risen to pre-war levels but most came from Eastern and Southern Europe instead of Western Europe Many brought different ideas, cultural norms with them.
Demobilization leads to economic turmoil Demobilization- the return to a peacetime economy Government agencies let go of their controls on Industry – Businesses raised prices they had been forced to keep low during the war -demand for consumer goods outsripped supply leading to the ________ in prices. (cost of living doubled) Effects: Rapid inflation- the lowering of the value of money. If prices for the cost of living go up your money buys you less. During the war, industries were forced to raise wages (concessions given to workers) inflation caused workers to lose their economic gains. Inflation caused operating costs for companies to rise- employers wanted to keep wages low.
Demobilization leads to economic turmoil Cont. Post War Recession Government cancelled about $2 billion in war contracts. (heavy industry) Factories responded by cutting back production and laying off workers. Farm Crisis- American farmers were expanding to produce food for European markets during the war – When Europe began producing their own food demand dropped- Farmers lost land.
Economic Turmoil leads to Racial Tensions The Great Migration- 300,000- 500,000 AA move to North during war to fill jobs. Post war- job Competition/economic turmoil led to race riots 1919 race riots broke out in over 20 Northern cities. Chicago- black boy swam onto beach restricted to whites, Whites allegedly stoned boy-he drowned. Violence spread to South 1921- Tulsa Riot 1923- Rosewood See video Clip
Inflation leads to Strikes Labor strikes seen as “communist” Seattle General Strike (1919) – all workers not just workers from one industry. The Steel Strike – 350,000 steelworkers, higher pay, shorter hours and union recognition. Company broke up strike by using anti-immigrant feelings to divide workers. The Boston Police Strike (1919) – 75% of the Boston police force went on strike. All the men were fired. Calvin Coolidge MA governor “There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.”
The Red Scare 1919-1920 Russian Revolution leads to fear of communism (1919- creation of Communist International) Worker strikes added to fear of possible communist plot.(other bad ideas, anarchism and socialism included). 30 bombs were intercepted by US post office, addressed to prominent business leaders and politicians. June-1919 eight bombs exploded in 8 cities simultaneously – seeming to confirm fears of a attempted takeover-blamed on communists and other radicals. (one destroyed part of Attorney General Mitchell Palmer’s House)
The Palmer Raids Palmer established the General Intelligence Division (predecessor to FBI) Headed by J Edgar Hoover. Palmer organized raids of various radical organizations, particularly Communist Focused on foreign residents and immigrants Agency often disregarded the civil liberties of suspects. Suspects were mistreated held for indefinite periods of time Detained and deported suspects from the country. Raids failed to turn up evidence of revolutionary conspiracy.
Nativism and the Legal System-The Sacco-Vanzetti Case 2 men shot and killed two employees of a shoe store in Braintree Ma, Robbing it of $15,000. Sacco and Vanzetti two Italian immigrants were arrested, charged, and tried for the crime. Men were anarchists (someone who opposes all forms of government) Sacco owned a gun similar to the one used in the crime- bullets matched. No conclusive proof to their committing of the crime. Both were found guilty and sentenced to death Guilty or victims of prejudice? See reading
Nativism and Racism Eugenics movement – false scientific movement that deals with the ability to improve hereditary traits. Social Darwinism in its scientific form. Human inequalities are inherited and the ending of the procreation of the “unfit” and “inferior.” Forced sterilization of African American women
The Re-emergence of the Ku Klux Klan Original KKK response to emancipation of the slaves Re-emergence included hatred towards Catholics, Jews, and Immigrants. Public Relations campaign claiming that the Klan was fighting for “Americanism” solicited 4 million members nationwide See Political cartoon
Nativism and Public Policy Immigrants Seen as a threat to cultural order Threat to soldiers of WWI who needed jobs in the post-war weak economy. Emergency Quota act (1921) – created a quota system limiting immigration. Only 3% of the total population of an ethnic group that was living in the US as recorded in the 1910 US census could be admitted into the US per year. Result is that it discriminated heavily against Immigrants from eastern and southern Europe.
Nativism and Public Policy Cont. The National Origins Act (1924)- made immigrant restriction a permanent policy. Set quotas at 2% of people living in the US of a particular nationality as recorded in the 1890 census. Result: scaled back where immigrants could come from- favoring Northern Europe Second part of the act that took effect in 1929 limited immigration to 150,000 people a year. Exempted people from the Western Hemisphere Huge influx of Mexicans to fill need of cheap labor in agriculture, mining, railroads
The Economics of the 1920’s- Creating a Boom Republicans controlled the Whitehouse from 1920-1932 Both Harding and Coolidge believed in laissez- faire “The business of America is business”
The Roaring 20’s beginCauses of Boom Supply-side economics New Business Techniques (assembly lines, mass production, advertising, credit) Rise of New Industries (automobile, radio, motion picture, advertising, other consumer goods) New attitude
Economic Philosophy of the 20’s to promote economic growth Supply-side economics a.k.a Trickle Down economics Leads to an uneven distribution of wealth. 2. Businesses and Consumers spend/ invest Money 3. Economy Grows 1. Government Lowers taxes
The Roaring 20’s Begin Between 1923 and 1929 earnings increased 22 % while work hours decreased What made this Possible? Expansion of Mass Production and Assembly Line system into most industries. Effect – more products at a lower cost
Ford Motors Model T 1908- $850 1914- $490 (mass production) 1924- $295 (improved assembly line techniques) Question: What other industry’s began because of the automobile?
New Technologies lead to New Industries Airline Beginning planes during WWI 1918- government created first airmail service 1925 – Kelly Act –postal officials were allowed to contract with private airplane providers to carry mail nationwide 1926- Air Commerce Act – provided federal aid for building airports 1927- Charles Lindberg 1 st solo flight across the Atlantic – won popular support for commercial flights 1928- 48 airlines serving 355 American cities.
The Radio Industry 1913 – Edwin Armstrong Invented Radio 1926 – National Broadcasting Company (NBC) created. 1927 – NBC has 700 stations nationwide 1928 – Colombia Broadcasting System (CBS) created a coast to coast network Both sold advertising time and hired popular musicians, actors and comedians to appear on their shows 1928 – sold $1 million of advertising time to Republicans and Democrats.
The Consumer Society Emerges New industries led to more employment opportunities and higher wages (8%) Higher Wages and shorter workdays (more leisure time) resulted in a decade long buying spree Shift in attitude – people went from being “thrifty” to wanting to consume goods. Let go of the “Protestant Ethic” Installment plans – buying things now and paying for them over time People bought cars, radios, phones, washing machines with the use of credit
New Industries lead to the Rise of Mass Advertising Mass advertising emerged to respond to the “need” to create “needs” for new inventions. Consequently has become one of the largest industries in US. Advertisers created appealing, persuasive messages that linked their clients’ products with qualities associated with the modern era. i.e. progress, convenience, leisure, success Comparing Ads
How Stable is this economy? In 1929 Henry Ford recorded a personal income of $14 Million dollars While the average personal income was $750 Disposable income did grow during the decade 9% for most while the top 1% gained a 75% increase in the disposable income Overall increase in production-Worker productivity increased 32% while wages increased only 8% Where does the excess go?