Today’s Agenda Return Test 8.1 slide show Homework Read 8.1
Geneva Convention relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War (1949) Article 3 ‘Prohibits’ (a) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; (c) Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular, humiliating and degrading treatment; (d) The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court affording all the judicial guarantees which are recognized as indispensable by civilized peoples. Amendment VIII (1791) Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.
Along with a military response, the US sought to root out terrorists within its borders, Afghanistan and Iraq. In order to save America and all that it stands for (Bill of Rights) and to ‘tear out the radical seeds’ that sought to destroy it, some government officials believed that the president needed extraordinary powers to save the Nation.
These officials believed that foreign terrorists were not protected by national and international law. They were labeled ‘enemy combatants’ and denied the protection of the Geneva Convention as well as the US Constitution.
Is it OK for the United States to ignore International Law &/or the Constitution during a national emergency? How far should we go to make ourselves feel safe?
Following WWI, the United States had to deal with similar issues. The enemy = Foreign anarchists and communists The solution = The Palmer Raids The Result = xenophobia, anti-labor union feeling among Americans
Objectives At the end of this lesson you should be able to: Identify the Red Scare List 3 characteristics of bolshevism and why its spread was feared by Americans Identify Mitchell Palmer and describe his policies to ‘defend’ America Identify at least 3 separate examples of labor unrest in 1919, the reasons why they came about, the outcome
What was the Red Scare? Definition: Intense fear in US of a communist/radical takeover in years following WWI Comintern –Organization started by Lenin with goal of spreading communism American Communist Party –70, 000 members in 1919
What were the Palmer Raids? Mitchell Palmer –Staged raids, arrested thousands Ignored warrants, denied them attorneys Bombing at Washington D.C. home of Attorney-General Palmer Literary Digest, 6/14/19
How did the Public Reaction to the Palmer Raids. Majority supported actions “no time to waste on hairsplitting over infringement of liberty 6 thousand radicals deported Emma Goldman was among the deported
Describe the post WWI Labor Unrest Post War Recession > 3, 600 strikes in 1919 Were they successful? How were they viewed by the public?
Describe the Boston Police Strike Labeled as “Bolshevistic” by press Theft, looting rampant Coolidge-”There is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.”
Describe the US Steel Strike. Terrible Working Conditions Worked 24 hours straight Union wanted one day’s rest Elbert Gary (head of US Steel) refused 18 strikers killed Note how the strikers are portrayed in the press.
Describe the Seattle General Strike Began in shipyard in 1919 War-time wage-freeze continued after Versailles 110 other unions sympathized and joined them in a General Strike –Shut down city Mayor Ole Hanson –Arrested IWW leaders –Closed the Union Record –Broke the strike within 1 week
Political Spectrum concerning S.G.S IWWAFL Press Gov't RadicalReactionary Moderate
Conclusion The propaganda launched by George Creel and the Committee of Public Safety taught Americans to hate the Germans. This hatred was transferred to a new enemy, radicals. Over 6, 000 citizens and immigrants, some guilty, some not, were denied their rights and deported or worse. Labor unions, portrayed in the press as being controlled by radicals, met with little or no success.