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Tary J. Tobin, Celeste Rossetto Dickey University of Oregon.

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Presentation on theme: "Tary J. Tobin, Celeste Rossetto Dickey University of Oregon."— Presentation transcript:

1 Tary J. Tobin, Celeste Rossetto Dickey University of Oregon

2 Coordination, Consultation, and Evaluation (CCE) Center at the University of Wisconsin Center on PBIS Directed by George Sugai and Robert H. Horner

3 Will have case studies of a variety of 3 tiered models of school wide interventions, some academic, some behavioral, some both academic and behavioral.

4 1. What is a 3 tiered approach to School Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS)? 2. What’s the background for this study? 3. How was this school selected? 4. Interventions at this school 5. Outcomes for students 6. Conclusions & Practical Implications 7. Discussion & questions 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL4

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6 3/27/20086 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

7 Universal Interventions All students in the school Primary Prevention Targeted Interventions Students at risk for behavior problems Secondary Prevention Intensive, Individualized Interventions Students with serious or chronic behavior problems Tertiary Prevention 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL7

8 8  Primary Prevention: Universal interventions for all students  Extra support for some students: ◦ Secondary Prevention: Targeted interventions for students at heightened risk for behavior problems ◦ Tertiary Prevention: Intensive interventions for individual students 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

9  Behavioral expectations are ◦ defined, ◦ taught, ◦ and encouraged. 93/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

10 10  Defining behavioral expectations.  Using a range of positive and negative examples to teach all students and staff members.  Opportunities to practice.  Being rewarded and positively acknowledged when they use them.  Having most contacts between teachers and students be prosocial (positive and preventive) rather than corrective and punishing.  Using data to make decisions and to build action plans. The universal intervention is systematically coordinated with targeted and intensive individualized interventions. (Sugai & Horner, 2001; Sugai et al., 2000) 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

11 11  Behavior Education Program, also known as “Check In, Check Out” (CICO) (Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004) 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

12 Examples:  First Step to Success  Behavior Education Program, also known as “Check In, Check Out” (CICO)  Crone, Horner, & Hawken, 2004;  Sugai, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, & Todd, /27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

13 Student checks in at beginning of day with an adult at the school; gives assessment form to teacher at beginning of each period; [Cue for teacher to monitor] receives feedback on behavior at end of each class period; checks out at end of day with the same adult; takes CICO form home and gets it signed by parent. Team assesses % of points earned daily, and adjusts intervention weekly. (e.g., add self- monitoring) 133/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

14  Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA) ◦ Competing Behavior Pathway (O’Neill et al., 1997)  Behavior Support Plan based on the FBA  (Crone & Horner, 2003) 143/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

15 15  Functional Behavioral Assessment (FBA)  Behavior Support Plan based on the FBA (Crone & Horner, 2003) 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

16 16  Teachers decide who needs extra support, using Response to Intervention (RtI) logic.  Barkley has a strong support system for the teachers, including: ◦ Action Plans from School-wide PBS Team ◦ School Wide Information System (SWIS) ◦ Teacher Assistance Team for Academic & Pre- referral Suggestions ◦ District & School Teams Focused on Behavior Support for Individual Students ◦ Student Study Team for Special Education Referrals and On-going Help 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

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18  6,300 Students, 650 Staff  Suburban/Rural District  Free/Reduced Lunch (27-75%) District Average 48%  Mobility Rate (8%-29%)

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20 Project Prepare EBS Support Pilot Project Bethel EBS Project 1994-present PBS District-wide Implementation 2000-present RtI present Bethel Reading Project 1996-present Bethel Math Project present

21 Leadership Team Active Coordination Funding Visibility Political Support Training Coaching Evaluation Local School Teams/Demonstrations

22  Commitment to scientifically-based practices  Approach based on principles of effective instruction  Data-based decision making  Regular screening  Universal core curriculum  Continuum of support beyond universal systems

23  Three tier model ◦ PBS ◦ Reading K-9 ◦ Mathematics K-12  Research/University Partnerships ◦ PBS – Sugai, Horner, Anderson & Colvin ◦ Reading – Kame’enui, Simmons, Good & Harn ◦ RTI – Fuchs & Harn ◦ Mathematics – Chard, Jungjohann, Baker, Ketterlin-Geller, Tindal & Doabler

24  PBS District Leadership Team since 2000  PBS District Coordinator since 2000  Elementary, Middle and K-8 schools Monthly School PBS Team Meetings   Quarterly District PBS Team Trainings  Quarterly PBS Facilitator Meetings

25  PBS Schoolwide Team – meets monthly  BISSC Team – meets 1-2x monthly (now called IPBS Team)  TAT (Teacher Assistance Team) meet about individual students to develop plans

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27 Braun, Kowalko & Smith, 2007

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34  Universal: PBS School-wide Interventions  Targeted: Check In Check Out, Social Skills Groups, Counseling Groups, Breakfast Buddies, Recess Club, etc.  Individual: FBA/BSP, Individualized support, Family and Community involvement

35  Staff Member refers student to Teacher Assistance Team ◦ Team includes Teacher, Previous Teacher, Counselor, Special Educator, Administrator, and others ◦ Decisions about intervention & follow up scheduled

36  Monthly meeting to review students receiving targeted and individual interventions  Team includes: Special Educator, Counselor, Administrator, District Level Liaison (School Psychologist or Behavior Specialist)  Decisions about plan revisions, follow up TAT or moving from Targeted to Intensive interventions * Now called IPBS (Individual PBS Team)

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38 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL38  Behavior and/or Reading Research Centers (Oregon, Texas, Nebraska, North Carolina, Kansas)  United States Office of Special Education Programs  Coordination, Consultation, and Evaluation Center of the University of Wisconsin.

39 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL39  “To expand the conceptual and empirical knowledge about behavior support  for students who exhibit or are at-risk of developing serious problem behaviors that lead to later discipline problems” (Sugai & Horner, 2003).

40 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL40  Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD, Walker & Severson, 1990) or Early Screening Project (ESP, Walker, Severson, & Feil, 1995).  Social Skills Rating System (SSRS, Gresham & Elliott, 1990).  Office Discipline Referrals

41 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL41  Identified by scores on the Adaptive and/or Maladaptive behavior scales of the SSBS / ESP  based on norms by grade level and gender  At or above 70th percentile on internalizing or externalizing behavior problems was the criteria for being in the Tracking Sample.

42  Grade 1: Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders (SSBD, Walker & Severson, 1990)  Kindergarten: Early Screening Project (ESP, Walker, Severson, & Feil, 1995) 423/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

43 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL43  Gains other children’s attention in an appropriate manner.  Expresses anger appropriately (without becoming violent or destructive)  Gains teacher attention in appropriate ways.  Participates well in group activities.  Initiates positive social contact with peers.

44 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL44  Behaves inappropriately in class when directed (e.g., shouts, defies teacher).  Creates disturbance during class activities (noisy, bothers other children, etc.)  Tests or challenges teacher’s limits/rules  Pouts or sulks  Is overly affectionate with others (touching, hugging, kissing, hanging on, etc.)

45 453/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

46  Identified by scoring in the 30% percentile for “at-risk” for behavior disorders  on the Adaptive and/or Maladaptive behavior scales 463/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

47 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL47  Screening done to select new students for the Tracking Sample each year, while still following and monitoring progress of each cohort over the years, up to 3 rd grade  : Cohort A starts  : Cohort B starts

48 48  Grade-based Percentile for Problem Behaviors as rated by teachers on the Social Skills Rating System (SSRS, Gresham & Elliott, 1990) 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

49 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL49 1. Social Skills [Similar to the Adaptive behaviors on the SSBD] 2. Problem Behavior [Similar to the Maladaptive behaviors on the SSBD] 3. Academic Competence (includes reading, math, motivation, intellectual function, etc.)

50 1. Cooperation, 2. Assertion, 3. Self-Control (the Social Skills) 4. Externalizing, 5. Internalizing, 6. Hyperactive Behaviors (the Problem Behaviors) 7. Academic Competence (same as the main Academic Competence Scale) 503/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

51  Using the Oregon Behavior Research Center’s 3-tiered approach to SWPBS  With fidelity  Good outcomes for students in the Tracking Sample Study 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL51

52  Using the 3-tiered approach to SWPBS  With fidelity  Good outcomes for students in the Tracking Sample Study 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL52

53 53  School-wide Evaluation Tool (SET) (Horner et al., 2004)  Individual Student Systems Evaluation Tool (I-SSET) (Lewis-Palmer, Todd, Horner, Sugai, & Sampson, 2005) 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

54 543/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

55  Trained and Skilled Data Collectors ◦ Interviews  Administrator  Behavior Specialist  Behavior Support Team & School Staff ◦ Examination of Records  Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBAs)  Behavior Support Plans based on FBAs  Policies & Team meeting minutes  Produces 3 Scores ◦ Foundations ◦ Targeted Systems ◦ Individual Systems 553/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

56 563/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

57 573/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

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59 59  For the school  For the students 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

60 60  “Mid-size Central City” in the Northwestern part of the United States.  Enrollment ranges from about 325 to 345 students, in Grades K-5.  Ethnicity/racial groups: ◦ The percentage of White (Non-Hispanic) students ranged from 89% to 78%. ◦ Latino or Hispanic students, increasing, currently about 12% ◦ African American (Non-Hispanic), 1% to 4% ◦ Asian or Pacific Islander, 1% to 6% ◦ American Indian or Alaska Native, 2% to 5%.  65% to 70% free or reduced lunch  Title 1 school. 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

61 61  Barkley uses the school-wide systems of support that constitute PBS as described in the Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual (Sugai, Horner, Lewis-Palmer, & Todd, 2005, available online at 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

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63 63  Primary prevention provided for ALL students  14 (74%) of students who met criteria receiving no additional intervention. 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

64 64  5 of the 19 students received the targeted intervention, Check in / Check out (CICO) in addition to the universal intervention  One student received a tertiary level intervention, an intensive, individualized, behavioral intervention based on a functional behavioral assessment, also known as “function- based support.” 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

65 65  : ◦ Kindergarten (AK) ◦ 1 st Graders (A1)  ◦ Kindergarten (BK)  & ◦ Students move up through the grades (or move away)  More cohorts in the full study: 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

66 663/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

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68 68  For 19 Barkley students who were in the Tracking Sample Study for at least two years and had no missing data on key measures, compared their first to last year in the study.  On average, dropped from 86 th to 59 th percentile on the SSRS problem behavior scale, which includes both internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

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82  The primary intervention of PBS is sufficient behavioral support for many young children even when identified by the SSBD/ESP.  Over time, the school improved its capacity to provide the secondary (CICO) & tertiary (function-based individualized support) interventions.  Externalizers were more likely to receive extra support than Internalizers. 823/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

83 83  When School-wide Positive Behavior Support is well implemented, as it was in this school, the universal intervention (Primary Prevention) is effective and efficient behavioral support for many young children who are identified as “at risk” for externalizing or internalizing behaviors.  Students with serious behavior problems typically benefit from extra support (Secondary or Tertiary Prevention), such as Check In / Check Out and/or Function-based Support, especially if it is provided consistently over time while self-management skills are developing. 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

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86 86 Benazzi, L., Horner, R. H. (2006). Effects of behavior support teams composition on the technical adequacy and contextual fit of behavior support plans. The Journal of Special Education, 40, Condon, K. A., & Tobin, T. J. (2001). Using electronic and other new ways to help students improve their behavior. Teaching Exceptional Children, 34(1), Crone, D. A., & Horner, R. H. (2003). Building positive behavior support systems in schools: Functional behavioral assessment. New York: Guilford. Crone, D. A., Horner, R. H., & Hawken, L. S. (2003). Responding to problem behavior in schools: The Behavior Education Program. New York: Guilford. Gresham, F. M. (2005). Response to intervention: An alternative means of identifying students as emotionally disturbed. Education & Treatment of Children, 28, Fairbanks, S., Sugai, G., & Guardino, D. (in press). Response to intervention: An evaluation of a classroom system of behavior support for second grade students. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Neag School of Education. Gresham, F. M., & Elliott, S. N. (1990). Social skills rating system. Circle Pines, MN: American Guidance Service. Horner, R. H., Todd, A. W., Lewis-Palmer, T., Irvin, L., Sugai, G., & Boland, J. (2004). The School-wide evaluation tool (SET): A research instrument for assessing school-wide positive behavior support. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6, Irvin, L. K., Tobin, T. J., Sprague, J. R., Sugai, G., & Vincent, C. G. (2004). Validity of office discipline referral measures as indices of school-wide behavioral status and effects of school-wide behavioral interventions. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 6(3), /27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

87 87 Lewis-Palmer, T., Todd, A., Horner, R., Sugai, G., & Sampson, N. (2005). Individual student system systems evaluation tool. Unpublished instrument. Eugene, University of Oregon, College of Education, Educational and Community Supports. Lewis-Palmer, T., Bounds, M., & Sugai, G. (2004). District-wide system for providing individual student support. Assessment for Effective Intervention, 30, McIntosh, K., Borgmeier, C. J., Anderson, C. M., Horner, R. H., Rodriguez, B. J., & Tobin, T. J. (in press). Technical adequacy of the functional assessment checklist - Teachers and Staff (FACTS) FBA interview measure. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions. McIntosh, K., Chard, D. J., Boland, J. B., & Horner, R. H. (2006). Demonstrating combined effects in school-wide academic and behavioral systems and incidence of reading and behavioral challenges in early elementary grades. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, Nelson, C. M., Sprague, J. R., Jolivette, K., Smith, C. R., Tobin, T. J. (in press). Positive behavior support in alternative education, community-based mental health, and juvenile justice settings. In Dunlap, G., Sailor, W., Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (Eds.) Handbook of Positive Behavior Support. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association. O’Neill, R. E., Horner, R. H., Albin, R. W., Storey, K., Sprague, J. R., & Newton, M. (1997). Functional assessment and program development for problem behavior: A practical handbook, 2nd ed. Pacific Grove, CA: Brooks/Cole. Scott, T. M., & Martineck, G. (2006). Coaching positive behavior support in school settings: Tactics and data-based decision-making. Journal of Positive Behavioral Interventions, 8, Sugai, G., & Horner, R. (2001, June 23). School climate and discipline: Going to scale. Paper presented at the National Summit on the Shared Implementation of IDEA, Washington, DC. Sugai, G., & Horner, R. H. (2002). The evolution of discipline practices: School-wide positive behavior supports. Child and Family Behavior Therapy, 24, (Co- published simultaneously in J. K. Luiselli & C. Diament (Eds.), Behavior psychology in the schools: Innovations in evaluation, support, and consultation (pp ). New York: The Haworth Press). 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL

88 88 Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Dunlap, G., Hieneman, M., Nelson, C. M., Scott, T., Liaupsin, C., Sailor, W., Turnbull, A. P., Turnbull, H. R., Wickham, D., Wilcox, B., & Ruef, M. (2000). Applying positive behavior support and functional behavioral assessment in schools. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 2(3), [Can be downloaded from ] Sugai, G., Horner, R. H., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Todd, A. W. (2005). Positive Behavior Support Team Training Manual. Eugene, University of Oregon. Retrieved 3/19/2006 from Sugai, G., Lewis-Palmer, T., Horner, R. H., & Todd, A. W. (2001). School-wide evaluation tool. Eugene, University of Oregon. Retrieved 11/01/2005 from Tobin, T. J. (2005). Parents’ guide to functional assessment (Third edition). University of Oregon, College of Education, Educational and Community Supports, Eugene. Retrieved 1/1/2008, from as “Parents’ Guide.” Tobin, T. J. (2007). Alternative and Regular Schools’ Use of the Team Implementation Checklist. University of Oregon, College of Education, Eugene. Retrieved 1/1/2008 from Tobin, T. J. (2006). Systems of individual support: The Functional Interventions in Versatile Environments Project’s pilot study of evaluation tools. University of Oregon, College of Education, Eugene. Retrieved 1/1/2008 from Tobin, T. J., (2006). Positive behavior support systems: Value added from use of the School Wide Information System. University of Oregon, College of Education, Eugene. Retrieved 1/1/2008 from Tobin, T. J., Lewis-Palmer, T., & Sugai, G. (2002). School-wide and individualized effective behavior support: An explanation and an example. Behavior Analysis Today, 3(1), Tobin, T. J., & Sugai, G. (2005). Preventing problem behaviors: Primary, secondary, and tertiary level prevention interventions for young children. Journal of Early Intensive Behavior Intervention, 2(3), Retrieved 10/6/2005 from Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G. (1999). Self-monitoring and self-recruited praise: Effects on problem behavior, academic engagement, and work completion in a typical classroom. Journal of Positive Behavior Interventions, 1, Todd, A. W., Horner, R. H., Sugai, G., & Colvin, G. (1999). Individualizing school-wide discipline for students with chronic problem behaviors: A team approach. Effective School Practices, 17(4), Walker, H. M., & Severson, H. H. (1990). Systematic Screening for Behavior Disorders: User's guide and administration manual. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Walker, H. M., Severson, H. H., & Feil, E. G. (1995). Early Screening Project: A proven child- find process. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. 3/27/2008 Fifth International Conference on Positive Behavior Support - Chicago, IL


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