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12-11 Obj: To understand a desire to return to normalcy in America and the fear of Communism.

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Presentation on theme: "12-11 Obj: To understand a desire to return to normalcy in America and the fear of Communism."— Presentation transcript:

1 12-11 Obj: To understand a desire to return to normalcy in America and the fear of Communism.

2 Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues Chapter 20 Section 1

3 Terms and Names  communism  A. Mitchell Palmer  anarchist  Sacco and Vanzetti  Calvin Coolidge  John L. Lewis

4 Trends in American Society After the War  After WWI, Americans wanted to get “back to normal”.  The biggest threat to normalcy was communism  Three trends resulted from this desire for normalcy

5 American Trends... Isolationism US pulls away from world affairs Nativism Suspicion of foreign born people Political Conservatism Opposite of the Progressive Era

6 The Russian Revolution  World War I devastated Russia and it’s government  March 15, 1917 Czar Nicholas II abdicated his throne  November 1917, Bolsheviks(Lenin) gained control  Established communism

7 March of 1919  Third Communist International meeting  Advocated worldwide revolution  Overthrow the capitalist system  Abolish free enterprise  No more private property

8 The Red Scare in the U. S.  70,000 Americans joined the Communist party  The rest of the nation panicked; thought the “reds” were going to take over

9 The Palmer Raids  A. Mitchell Palmer  Attorney General  Decided to take action against the “Red Scare”  Felt radicals were undermining American values

10 The Palmer Raids...  Government agents hunted down suspected Communists, socialists and anarchists  Ignored civil rights; invaded homes and offices without search warrants

11 The Palmer Raids  Jailed suspects without allowing them to see lawyers, arrested their visitors  Deported hundreds of “suspects” without a trial

12 The Palmer Raids...  The raids didn’t turn up any evidence, explosives, or plots  American public decided Palmer didn’t know what he was talking about

13 Sacco and Vanzetti  Italian immigrants, anarchists  Evaded the draft  Were accused of murder and robbery  Not given a fair trial

14  Sentenced to death despite circumstantial evidence and worldwide protests(1961 ballistics)

15 The Klan Rises Again  The Klan revived in 1915 and strengthened in 1920 (b/c rise in Red Scare and anti-immigrant feelings)  Devoted to “100% Americanism”  4.5 million “white male persons, native – born gentile citizens”

16 The Klan Rises Again  Opposed anyone unlike themselves  Believed in keeping blacks “in their place”  Drove Jews, Roman Catholics and foreign born people out of the country  Opposed union organizations  Enforced prohibition

17 The Klan Rises Again  Dressed in hooded robes  Used a secret language & rituals  Created an incentive program to recruit members called “kleagling”

18 The Klan Rises Again  Felt moral values were being attacked  Feared job competition from immigrants  Convinced foreigners were going to overthrow the American way of life  Influenced national state and local politics

19 Quota System  Emergency Quota Act of 1921 established the max number of people who could enter the U.S. from each foreign country(Pg. 622)  Discriminated against people from eastern and southern Europe(Roman Catholics and Jews)  Total number admitted in one year equaled 150k.  Prohibited Japanese immigration; angered Japanese

20 A Time of Labor Unrest  During the war workers were not allowed to go on strike  Wages had not kept up with prices, but employers didn’t want to give their workers raises  In 1919, there were more than 3000 strikes

21 The Boston Police Strike  No raise since the beginning of the war  Asked for a living wage  Everyone that asked was fired  Remaining police went on strike

22 The Boston Police Strike  Governor Calvin Coolidge called out National Guard to restore order  Boston Police called off the strike

23 The Boston Police Strike  The police commissioner refused to allow the men to return to their jobs  The newly hired men received what the police had been striking for

24 The Steel Mill Strike Who:US Steel Corporation When:September 1919 Why:Difficult & Dangerous working conditions Wants:Shorter working day Living wage

25 The Steel Mill Strike  Steel companies hired strikebreakers and used force  18 workers were killed  Hundreds were wounded and beaten  Other companies said the strikers were Communists

26 The Steel Mill Strike  President Wilson tried to intervene but was not able to resolve the issues  The strike ended January 1920  A report in 1923 about the working conditions shocked the public and the steel companies agreed to an 8 hour work day  Steelworkers still did not have a union

27 The Coal Miners Strike Who:United Mine Workers John L. Lewis, president When:November 1, 1919 Why:Low wages Long workdays

28 The Coal Miners Strike  Defied a court order to go back to work for another month  President Wilson sent an arbitrator  Coal miners received a 27% increase  Did not receive a shorter workday until the 1930’s.

29 Labor Movement Loses Appeal  Many Americans believed labor unions fostered communism  Most unions excluded African Americans  Except mine workers, longshoremen and railroad porters

30 Labor Movement Loses Appeal  Membership in unions declined  Immigrants had no choice but to work in poor conditions  Unions had trouble organizing the many languages  Farmers turned factory workers were used to relying on themselves

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