Presentation on theme: "An Action Research Project Andreali Dharampaul EDU 7202 Spring 11’ Single Gender Classrooms vs. Mixed Gender Classrooms: The Effects of Peer Relations."— Presentation transcript:
An Action Research Project Andreali Dharampaul EDU 7202 Spring 11’ Single Gender Classrooms vs. Mixed Gender Classrooms: The Effects of Peer Relations and Academic Success in Pre-K.
TABLE OF CONTENTS Introduction - Statement of the Problem - Literature Review - Statement of the Hypothesis Method - Participants - Instrument - - - - Experimental Design - Procedure Results Discussion Implications References
INTRODUCTION & STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Introduction: Boys and girls have different learning styles Title IX regulations Single sex schools show improvement in academic success in the upper grades Statement of the Problem : Many researchers have concluded that sex composition plays a role in the outcome of a student’s academic success and peer relations in the classroom. Although there is research that concludes the effect sex composition has on a childhood student’s academic success and peer relations, not much research has been done in early childhood education to support this theory. Is a student’s academic success and peer relation influenced by their classroom sex composition in early childhood or is it irrelevant during these early stages in their education?
LITERATURE REVIEW (PRO) Female students profit less than male students in cooperative learning when in a mixed gendered science classroom. (Ding, Harskamp & Suhre, 2008). Students enrolled in a same sex science classroom demonstrated more positive science achievement. (Friend, 2006). Same sex classrooms have a positive outcome for both boys and girls academic success, increased student commitment and fewer sexually stereotyped behaviors. (Forbes- Jones, Friedman, Hightower & Moller, 2008; Cohen & Barton, 2004; Jorgensen & Pfeiler, 2008, Hutton, Kilpatrick & Wills, 2006). Boys struggle academically because boys and girls are biologically and developmentally different. ( Okopny, 2008; Hutton, Kilpatrick & Wills, 2006; Kommer, 2006, Laster, 2004, Whitehead, 2006). Girls show greater academic competence when less time was spent with the same sex, and boys showed less academic competence when more time was spent with same sex peers in preschool. (Fabes, Martin, Hanish, Anders & Madden- Derdich, 2003, Laster, 2004).
LITERATURE REVIEW (CON) Sex accounts for less than 2% to 5% in most studies that focus on behavior, spatial, language and/ or mathematical abilities. In contrast for choice of play partners sex accounts for 70% to 80% in early childhood. (Palmer, 2004). Children between the ages of three and five show evidence of stereotypical gender cues & such segregation may lead to limited opportunities in their education and careers in the future. (Palmer, 2004; Okopny, 2008; Medina, 2009; Hutton, Kilpatrick & Wills. 2006). Boys form larger mutual friendships where as girls experience a negative change in social behaviors. (Cohen & Barton, 2004; Forbes- Jones, Friedman, Hightower & Moller, 2008). Girls seek close proximity behaviors when boys are the majority. (Fabes, Martin, Hanish, Anders & Madden- Derdich, 2003; Cohen & Barton, 2004; Forbes- Jones, Friedman, Hightower & Moller, 2008).
STATEMENT OF HYPOTHESIS HR1: Over a four week instruction period, teacher X will separate her mixed gender pre- k classroom into a single gender classroom implementing lessons in an urban private school located in East Flatbush, Brooklyn. Separating her students into single sex classrooms will allow teacher X to make observations on peer relations and compare test scores on their academic success (using the same instruments) to those of her normal mixed gender classroom setting, measuring the effectiveness of single gender instruction in early childhood.
METHOD Participants: Twenty pre-schooler’s between ages four and five from an urban private preschool in the East Flatbush section of Brooklyn, New York. Week one and two - ½ day mixed gender instruction - 20 pre-schooler’s Week three and four - ½ day single gender instruction - 12 girls - 8 boys
METHOD Instruments: - Parental Consent Forms & Surveys: *Frequency, Preference & Demographics - Pre & Post Test * Reading Comprehension (both groups) * Addition (Mixed Gender) * Fractions (Single Gender) - Student Questionnaire's * Feedback on intervention - Teacher Observations *Peer interactions amongst both groups Experimental Design: Quasi-Experimental: Non equivalent control group design Two groups: Designated treatment group (X1) & control group (X2) *not randomly assigned Symbolic Design: O X1 O O X2 O
PROCEDURE Parental consents & surveys are distributed. Mixed gender: (1/2 day session: 2 ½ hours) * pre- test: reading comprehension & math (addition) * intervention (two weeks/ 20 preschoolers) * post- test: reading comprehension & math (addition) ** observations on peer relations are made by the teacher Single gender: (1/2 day session: 2 ½ hours) * pre- test: reading comprehension & math (addition) * intervention (two weeks/ 12 G & 8 B) * post- test: reading comprehension & math (addition) ** observations on peer relations are made by the teacher Student Questionnaire’s
RESULTS Frequency question: “How often do you read to your child” **.71 or.7rxy fair positive correlation (1)Never (2) Sometimes (3) Often (4) Always Preference question: “I check my child’s homework” **.11 or.1rxy no correlation (1) Strongly disagree (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Strongly Agree
RESULTS Mixed Gender: -Reading comprehension t.s.a increased by 8% and math skills decreased by 4%. Single Gender: -Reading comprehension t.s.a increased by 15% and math skills increased by 12.5%.
RESULTS Boys post-test scores were better in a mixed gender setting and girls post-test scores were better in a single gender setting. Single gender P.T.S are 3.1% higher than mixed gender P.T.S. Overall test score averages showed a higher increase of 12% when given single gender instruction
56% 69.5% 83% 96.5% 110% Mixed Gender Post Test Score Distribution Single Gender Post Test Score Data Distribution 62.1% 74.1% 86.1% 98.1% 110.1% DATA DISTRIBUTION 40 70 80 90 100 60.5 70.5 80 80.5 90 100 Mean: 83% Lowest score: 40% Highest score:100% SD:13.5 80% +/- 1 SD *represents a normal curve Mean: 86.1% Lowest score: 60.5% Highest score:100% SD:12 55% +/- 1 SD *does not represent a normal curve 45% 35% 30% 25%
DISCUSSION & IMPLICATIONS DISCUSSION: Both reading comprehension and math skills increased in S.G instruction Overall post test scores showed a higher increase from pre test score averages to post test scores in a S.G instruction. Males test scores were higher in a M.G setting compared to female test scores. Females test scores were higher in a single gender classroom setting. Students elicit stereotypical behaviors in both settings. Girls were confrontational, territorial, and formed cliques & boys were active, noisy but cooperative. IMPLICATIONS: More research is needed Longer period of time Bigger class sample Equal number of students by gender More subjects More than one setting
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