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Attention Definition: Concentration of mental effort or energy on a selected internal or external signal. Cocktail party effect: selective effects of attention.

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Presentation on theme: "Attention Definition: Concentration of mental effort or energy on a selected internal or external signal. Cocktail party effect: selective effects of attention."— Presentation transcript:

1 Attention Definition: Concentration of mental effort or energy on a selected internal or external signal. Cocktail party effect: selective effects of attention Major issue: early vs. late filtering Broadbent single filter model: early selection based on physical characteristics of stimulus Treisman attenuation model: early selection based on meaning – semantic processing biased by virtual in varying input energies and recognition threshold’s of stored representations

2 Early vs. Late filters

3 Broadbent’s single filter model

4 Treisman’s Attenuation model

5 Attention: Late filter models Deutch & Norman pertinence model: response filter based on enduring dispositions and momentary intentions Problem in assessing late vs. early: often they made similar predictions based on different logic Attention as spotlight: Palmer (1990) when attentional precision drops when attention more widely dispersed over larger spatial area Attention as resource allocation problem : dual task studies show decrements in performance on primary task when secondary task added

6 Kahneman’s resource allocation model of attention

7 Attention: Automatic vs. Controlled Processing Dual task paradigms: Also show that with practice some secondary tasks do not cause decrements in primary task performance. Characteristics of automatic processing: – Require little or not cognitive resources – Run off without intention/awareness – Cause no dual task interference When do task become automatic? Snyder & Shiffrin (1977) – “consistent mapping” of input patterns to responses. The more consistent – less practice required; more complex – more practice


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