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SCHOOLING AFRICAN AMERICANS Reconstruction Redemption Booker T. Washington William Edward Burghardt Du Bois.

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Presentation on theme: "SCHOOLING AFRICAN AMERICANS Reconstruction Redemption Booker T. Washington William Edward Burghardt Du Bois."— Presentation transcript:

1 SCHOOLING AFRICAN AMERICANS Reconstruction Redemption Booker T. Washington William Edward Burghardt Du Bois

2 Political Economy RECONSTRUCTION: 1863-Emancipation Proclamation announced the end of slavery 1865-Congress passed the 13 th Amendment freeing four million slaves (3.5 million in South) 1866-14 th Amendment passed giving full citizenship to slaves upon its ratification in 1868 1867-North increased its influence in the South with the 1 st Reconstruction Act which gave Congress more control over the Southern political economy 1870- 15 th Amendment established right for black males to vote-made black men the majority voters in 5 southern states 1877-Withdrawal of federal troops for the South and the end of Reconstruction

3 Political Economy cont… REDEMPTION: 1877-marks beginning of the Period of Redemption Local white supremacy laws were passed to prohibit black people from using public facilities such as parks, buildings, cemeteries, railroad cars, rest rooms, etc… 1890-Mississippi established literacy and poll tax requirements- deprived most black people from voting and other states followed this plan In Louisiana black voters were cut from 130,000 to 1,300 in a six year period Successfully destroyed most of the advances made by African- Americans during Reconstruction

4 Schooling After Civil War there were no laws requiring equal education for African Americans in the constitution. During Reconstruction freed men and women constructed laws that included decisive wording as shall regarding education. 1867-Alabama freed men and Republicans enacted constitutional laws providing revenue for education 1868-1870-Reconstruction laws enabled blacks to make gains in public education. Higher percentage of blacks than whites going to school, longer school terns, higher teacher pay 1875-White Democrats began to take control of the black belt (Redemption). Freed men were driven out of political offices. Governance of all schools now in the hands of whites. Black schools still developed with some success because of 2 key factors: –Black people could still vote—dangerous to tamper with black public education if you wanted (needed) the black vote –Black education was protected because of level safeguards of equal funding that freedmen had inserted in state constitution

5 Schooling continued 1877-1887-percentage of black school age children exceeded white and still longer school year (84-86 days vs. 71-82) 1890- Alabama’s State Superintendent of Education Solomon Palmer devised a plan due to 2 main complaints: –1. Black schools received nearly all the area’s school funds while paying virtually no taxes –2. Black pupils were not mentally advanced to the point where they needed as much education as white people, and therefore didn’t need as much money for school funds 1890-House Bill 504 passed (Palmer’s Plan) –Required State Superintendent to apportion the public school fund according to the school-age population. Authorized township trustees to apportion funds as they deemed “JUST AND EQUITABLE”

6 Schooling Continued After 1890 -1887-1897-significant decline in education of blacks General enrollment and school terms of black children as well as average pay of black teachers came to a standstill or decreased -1915-Enrollment of white children in public schools exceeded that of black students -Average monthly pay of white teachers doubled that of black teachers -Approximately 60% of black schools were privately owned. Large amount of money was contributed by blacks above what they paid in taxes

7 Booker T. Washington Most prominent black leader from 1895-1915 Founded Alabama’s Tuskegee Institute after his graduation from Hampton Normal School Strong believer in education Emphasized pragmatic (oriented toward practical thought or action) approach to work, traditional morality. And industrial education Believed that hard labor and the accumulation of property were the keys to resolving all social problems Believed that respect and citizenship would come to blacks in proportion to their accumulation of property, education, and good jobs Thought that if African Americans achieved economic success, political and social gains would automatically follow

8 Washington cont… Believed in Darwin’s theory of biological evolution Thought teachers at the Normal School should remain free from politics and the discussion of the race question and he publicly advised the general black population to abstain from voting, running for political office, or speaking out against racial injustices His “Atlanta Compromise” speech called for the advancement of public education as a means to bring blacks into useful employment, and economic justification for education of blacks and an argument aligned with the human capital theory

9 William Edward Burghardt (W.E.B.) Du Bois Born and raised in Massachusetts. He was one of 50 blacks living in a town of 5000. Did not experience much overt racism Attended Fisk College (now University) in Tennessee where he saw discrimination in forms he never dreamed of. First African American ever to receive his Doctorate from Harvard Became professor at Atlanta University teaching history and economics Saw racism as institutionalization and oppressive in the US Believed the race problem was one of ignorance. Wanted to gain as much knowledge about this as possible as to form a “cure” for color prejudice. Thought assimilation(to take in and incorporate as one’s own) should be achieved through self-assertion

10 Du Bois cont… Called for organized public protest, legal action against racist institutions and higher education for blacks Believed in the higher education of a “Talented Tenth” who could guide African Americans into higher civilization. 1906-1 of 25 members of the Niagara Movement. The objectives of this group were to advocate civil justice and abolish caste discrimination. 1909-Niagara Movement was forced down by opponents (rumored Washington’s followers). 24 of the members merged with some white liberals and formed the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Became editor-in-chief for 25 years of Crisis Magazine, distributing the news of the NAACP and policies. Only wrote of views that he felt could “Lift the coffin lid off his people.”

11 Ideology Conservative social philosophy which accommodated white supremacy and racial segregation Belief that industrial education and skilled labor would serve as a means to overcome racial and class discrimination Darwin’s theory of biological evolution which provided a rational explanation of the unequal class distribution of wealth and political power among racial groups Oppression thought to be the natural process of moral and cultural evolution (based on Darwin’s theory of biological evolution) Black people had only evolved to a cultural stage that was thousands of years behind whites thus their inferiority position was the natural order of social evolution

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