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Discussion  Wartime job growth largely came from the production of military-related goods.

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4 Discussion  Wartime job growth largely came from the production of military-related goods.

5 Discussion  What do you think has changed about the soldiers’ hometowns while they were gone? Some places will have new factories, shipyards, and other signs of wartime growth. New entertainment venues may have also appeared, such as restaurants, movie theaters, and shops.

6 Economic Unrest Inflation Workers wanted higher wages to keep up with the inflated prices caused by the removal of price controls. But inflation was also causing companies’ operating costs to soar. Adding wage hikes would have made those costs even worse. Strikes In 1919 more than four million workers were involved in strikes across the United States. Reasons for these strikes included demands for higher wages, shorter hours, and union recognition. Shipyard workers, steelworkers, and police officers are just a few examples of groups that went on strike. Racial Unrest Many returning veterans blamed their economic problems on African Americans, who had migrated to the North during the war. In 1919 race riots broke out in 25 cities.

7 Discussion  How did government action lead indirectly to the conflict between workers and business leaders? The sudden removal of price controls caused inflation to soar. Soaring inflation caused prices to rise and goods and services to become more expensive. To keep up with the higher cost of living, workers demanded higher pay.

8 Discussion  Who besides African Americans could veterans have blamed for the problems they encountered? They could have blamed the government for not creating public-service jobs, or they could have blamed business owners for refusing to hire more workers.

9 Strike The word Strike has different meanings. The word in relation to baseball or bowling is in reference to hitting something. Strike, as used in this lesson, means “to refuse to continue to work until certain demands are met.”

10 Lynchings Lynching of African Americans was fairly common. Dozens of lynchings—killing a person without trial, usually by hanging—took place in 1919 alone.






16 CAUSES OF THE RED SCARE Bombs in the Mail The postwar strikes involved immigrant laborers and created a panic that became known as the Red Scare. In 1919, more than 30 homemade bombs were sent through the mail, addressed to well-known Americans. Eight mail bombs exploded in eight different cities. One of them destroyed part of the home of A. Mitchell Palmer, the nation’s attorney general. Palmer’s Raids Palmer set up a special branch of the Justice Department to fight radicals, which eventually became the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI). Under leader J. Edgar Hoover, agents targeted foreign-born workers and radical organizations. Effects on Civil Liberties Many immigrants were deported and others arrested, their civil liberties often ignored. In spite of Palmer’s failure to uncover any solid evidence of a Communist conspiracy, the Red Scare led Congress to severely limit immigration.

17 Discussion  How do you think Americans’ state of mind was influenced by the Red Scare? People became frightened about the thought of a Communist revolution.

18 Discussion In what ways was the terror of the Red Scare similar to the terror after the attacks of 9/11? In what ways was it different? Similarities were the civilian targets and the unpredictability of the attack. Differences were that the attacks of 9/11 were carried out on a single day and the attackers claimed responsibility.


20 Normalcy Election of 1920 Democrats focused on progressive ideals and the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles. Republicans focused on returning the United States to “normalcy,” which meant prewar days. Uncertainty Helps Republicans Republican candidate Harding became popular with a public that had grown fearful of economic change through strikes and social reform through progressive legislation. The campaign came during the Red Scare and the women’s suffrage movement. By this time, many people had had quite enough change.

21 Discussion  Why was Harding’s campaign slogan “Return to Normalcy” timely? It came only two years after the most horrific war the world had ever seen and during a time of economic uncertainty, terrorism, and racial unrest. Many people were fearful about the future and recalling a more peaceful past, whether it truly existed or not, appealed to voters.

22 Discussion What political shift does Harding’s landslide victory suggest to you?  A shift away from policies based on progressive ideals toward more conservative policies—what he called “normalcy”)

23 Discussion  What region of the country voted for the Democrats in both elections? the Deep South

24 Discussion What region voted Republican in both elections?
the Northeast and northern Midwest

25 Discussion What region of the country changed its vote between 1916 and 1920? the West

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