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The Jazz Age & The Age Of Corruption, 1919=1929 AP United States History Unit 7 A Reluctant Colossus, 1880-1939.

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Presentation on theme: "The Jazz Age & The Age Of Corruption, 1919=1929 AP United States History Unit 7 A Reluctant Colossus, 1880-1939."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Jazz Age & The Age Of Corruption, 1919=1929 AP United States History Unit 7 A Reluctant Colossus,

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4 Russian Revolution & Rise Of Communism Results Of The Russian Revolution The Communists (Reds) win the Revolution, murder the Russian czar and his family, and placed all private property under government control.The Communists (Reds) win the Revolution, murder the Russian czar and his family, and placed all private property under government control. –Scares conservatives and property owners throughout the world. Lenin pushes for a worldwide revolution, focusing on industrial workers. Lenin Giving A Speech

5 Russian Revolution & Rise Of Communism Appeal Of Communism Social and economic equality.Social and economic equality. Share in the means and profits of production.Share in the means and profits of production. Divided the possessions of the rich.Divided the possessions of the rich. Highly centralized government meant to benefit society.Highly centralized government meant to benefit society. Lenin Leading A Rally

6 Radical Activity In Post-World War I America Centered Around Labor Unions Communists appointed themselves as the “champions of workers.”Communists appointed themselves as the “champions of workers.” Many issues fought for by union leaders were similar to Communist goals.Many issues fought for by union leaders were similar to Communist goals. When a strike broke out, people interpreted as a Communist- inspired conspiracy.When a strike broke out, people interpreted as a Communist- inspired conspiracy. Union Workers Striking In 1919

7 Radical Activity In Post-World War I America Terrorism Increases Anarchists (those against all forms of government) attempt to kidnap, bomb, or murder many American leaders.Anarchists (those against all forms of government) attempt to kidnap, bomb, or murder many American leaders. –Included John D. Rockefeller, President Wilson, Supreme Court Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, and Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer. Many believed that anarchists and their terrorist activities were connected to the Communists.Many believed that anarchists and their terrorist activities were connected to the Communists. Anarchy Symbol

8 Radical Activity In Post-World War I America Myths Increase To Scare Americans Belief was that all radicals were either immigrants or illegal aliens.Belief was that all radicals were either immigrants or illegal aliens. The enemy becomes the lowly immigrant, especially those of Jewish, Russian, Italian, or Slavic heritage.The enemy becomes the lowly immigrant, especially those of Jewish, Russian, Italian, or Slavic heritage. Slovak Immigrants

9 The Palmer Raids Origins Many people wanted the radicals suppressed.Many people wanted the radicals suppressed. –A witch-hunt begins to track down and arrest Communists and anarchists. Enter A. Mitchell Palmer.Enter A. Mitchell Palmer. –August 1919, begins to arrest people on suspicion of being Communist. –Focused efforts on union leaders and immigrants. Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer er.jpg/220px-Alexander_Mitchell_Palmer.jpg

10 The Palmer Raids Treatment Of Suspects Over 6,000 people arrested.Over 6,000 people arrested. –Many were not connected to the radicals, but still imprisoned. –Most had no communication with friends or families for weeks. –Visitors of prisoners were sometimes held as prisoners after visits. –Jammed into small, filthy cells, beaten, and forced to sign “confessions.” Palmer Raids Political Cartoon

11 Strikes Of 1919 Problems With Demobilization Government cancels military contracts.Government cancels military contracts. Industries begin to lay off workers.Industries begin to lay off workers. 4.5 million soldiers were returning and needed jobs.4.5 million soldiers were returning and needed jobs. Women were forced to leave their jobs to be replaced by men.Women were forced to leave their jobs to be replaced by men. Wartime shortages left prices high, but wages remained low.Wartime shortages left prices high, but wages remained low. Conversion to consumerism was slow and would not come until 1921.Conversion to consumerism was slow and would not come until Employees were tired of their treatment and wanted change.Employees were tired of their treatment and wanted change. –1,000 strikes between 1919 to 1923.

12 Strikes Of 1919 Boston Police Strike, Sept Police officers want to form a union for better pay and working conditions.Police officers want to form a union for better pay and working conditions. –Boston police commissioner will not allow it. Boston Police Strike, 1919

13 Strikes Of 1919 Boston Police Strike, Sept Nearly 75% of the police force would strike as a result.Nearly 75% of the police force would strike as a result. –Riots and mobs in the streets leads Massachusetts Governor Calvin Coolidge to send in the National Guard. –Officers agree to return to work, but are locked out by the police commissioner. –Returning war veterans were hired as replacements. Riots In Boston, 1919

14 Strikes Of 1919 Boston Police Strike, Sept Coolidge’s reaction.Coolidge’s reaction. –Sides with the commissioner. –States that “there is no right to strike against the public safety by anybody, anywhere, anytime.” Coolidge Inspecting The Mass. Militia

15 Strikes Of 1919 Pittsburgh Steel Strike, Sept ,000 steelworkers in Western Pennsylvania walk off the job.365,000 steelworkers in Western Pennsylvania walk off the job. –Demand union recognition, an increase in pay, less hours, and better working conditions. Union Workers Striking In HA/s400/n jpg

16 Strikes Of 1919 Pittsburgh Steel Strike, Sept U.S. Steel’s strikebreaking techniques.U.S. Steel’s strikebreaking techniques. –Strikers were jailed, beaten, or shot by the police. –African-Americans and Mexicans were brought in to work, leading to racial tensions in the area. Steel Strike 1919 https://cincystudents.wikispaces.com/file/view/Steel_Strike.jpg/ /Steel_Strike.jpg

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18 Economic Boom Impact Of World War I America emerges as an economic powerhouse.America emerges as an economic powerhouse. –Was physically untouched by the war, unlike their main competitors in Europe. –Both the Allies and Central powers owed the United States money. –Workers and soldiers were forced to save due to rationing. Leads to having money to invest in businesses and spend on new consumer goods. Munitions Factory During WWI

19 Economic Boom Increased Productivity & Profits Business management becomes a science studied at universities.Business management becomes a science studied at universities. –Leads to more competent owners, managers, and workers. Howard Hughes

20 Economic Boom Increased Productivity & Profits Assembly line.Assembly line. –Created by Henry Ford for the automobile industry, would be adopted by other industries. –Ford’s ideal was to train workers to do one job that they could perform at a rapid pace all day. –Leads to lower costs, increased productivity, lower consumer prices, increased demand, and profits galore. Henry Ford, Ca

21 Economic Boom Increased Productivity & Profits Energy technologies.Energy technologies. –Increased use and efficiency of products utilizing oil and electricity. Early Electric Appliances

22 Economic Boom Increased Productivity & Profits Government policies.Government policies. –Congress and the President are both Republican. Believed that the “business of America is business.”Believed that the “business of America is business.” Traditionally laissez-faire economics domestically, protectionist internationally.Traditionally laissez-faire economics domestically, protectionist internationally. –Most of the big money men in the first place. Favored the growth of big business. Favored the growth of big business. –Raised tariffs to protect American business. –Cut taxes on corporations and individuals. –Did little to enforce antitrust laws.

23 Rise Of Growth Industries Defined A key industry whose rapid expansion contributes to the growth of other sectors of the economy.A key industry whose rapid expansion contributes to the growth of other sectors of the economy. –In the 1920s, included automobiles, construction, real estate, appliances, electric power, telephone and radio companies, and chemicals. Early Telephone

24 Consumer Goods Defined Goods that people use in their daily lives and that can be a measure of standard of living.Goods that people use in their daily lives and that can be a measure of standard of living. –Leads to an increase in demand for new goods, which in turn leads to increases in production, jobs, and profits. Old Consumer Radio commons/thumb/c/c8/250px-Old_radio.jpg

25 Impact Of The Economic Boom Impact Real income rises 30%.Real income rises 30%. Unemployment fell to its lowest level in years.Unemployment fell to its lowest level in years. Increased research in technology, energy, and chemicals.Increased research in technology, energy, and chemicals. Mass production lessens the value of skilled workers.Mass production lessens the value of skilled workers. More people are investing.More people are investing. –A double-edged sword. Good because more money is available for economic expansion.Good because more money is available for economic expansion. Bad because people are looking to get rich quick, which leads to the practice of speculation (betting that a company or industry will do well in the immediate future).Bad because people are looking to get rich quick, which leads to the practice of speculation (betting that a company or industry will do well in the immediate future). People begin to borrow money from banks to play with on the stock market.People begin to borrow money from banks to play with on the stock market.

26 Business Mergers Increase Why??? Allowed for more business mergers by relaxing antitrust enforcement.Allowed for more business mergers by relaxing antitrust enforcement. Key example: the automobile industry.Key example: the automobile industry. –181 companies existed in By 1930, only 11 existed through mergers, buyouts, and bankruptcies. –The “Big Three” (Ford, Chrysler, and General Motors) produced over 85% of all vehicles. Henry Ford & His Model T

27 Business Mergers Increase Long-Term Consequences Of Mergers Reduced competition leads to an increase in prices.Reduced competition leads to an increase in prices. Illegal practices increase, including collaboration and collusion.Illegal practices increase, including collaboration and collusion. –With only a few companies controlling an industry, it makes it easier for the big companies to work together to set prices, incentives, and production levels to ensure the greatest profit. Worker independence.Worker independence. –By 1929, over half of American wage earners were working for companies considered to be large (employing over 250 people).

28 Business Mergers Increase Little Resistance To Business Practices Consumers are happy with their new products and the large companies keep prices relatively reasonable.Consumers are happy with their new products and the large companies keep prices relatively reasonable. McCall’s Ad, 1928

29 Business Mergers Increase Little Resistance To Business Practices Justice Department was busy.Justice Department was busy. –More worried about enforcing Prohibition. Abbott & Costello Meet the Keystone Cops Prohibition Officers Disposing Of Illegal alcohol

30 Business Mergers Increase Little Resistance To Business Practices Supreme Court & “the rule of reason.”Supreme Court & “the rule of reason.” –The question was not whether a merger resulted in the outlawed restraint of trade, but whether the Supreme Court thought the restraint was reasonable or unreasonable. –Will lead the Supreme Court to take little action against big business. –In the Age of Corruption, even Supreme Court judges could be bought. William Howard Taft, Chief Justice from

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32 Closing The Gates Establishment Of The Quota System Growth of immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, as well as Mexico.Growth of immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe, as well as Mexico. –Leads to a widespread fear of competition for jobs. –Many of the new immigrant groups would bring radical views with them. As a result of the strikes and the Red Scare, many Americans want to close the “Golden Gates” of America.As a result of the strikes and the Red Scare, many Americans want to close the “Golden Gates” of America. –Law in 1921 set a 3% quote for each nationality in the country, with a specific exclusion for the Asian population. Establishing The Quota

33 Closing The Gates Immigration Act Of 1924 Reduced the quota to 2% of the immigrant population, but based it on 1890 census.Reduced the quota to 2% of the immigrant population, but based it on 1890 census. –Aimed specifically at Southern and Eastern Europeans, who did not begin to arrive in large numbers until after Impact Of The Quota System on_to_the_United_States_ png

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35 Rebirth Of The Ku Klux Klan The Klan By 1915 By 1915, directed its hostility against blacks, Catholics, Jews, foreigners, unions, women who wanted political rights, and suspected Communists.By 1915, directed its hostility against blacks, Catholics, Jews, foreigners, unions, women who wanted political rights, and suspected Communists. Wanted to uphold traditional Christian values, would gain support from people who were not members.Wanted to uphold traditional Christian values, would gain support from people who were not members. Used modern advertising techniques to gain membership, rose from 15,000 in 1911 to over 5 million in 1921.Used modern advertising techniques to gain membership, rose from 15,000 in 1911 to over 5 million in KKK Rally In The ‘20s

36 Rebirth Of The Ku Klux Klan Tactics Targeted anyone seen as “un-American.”Targeted anyone seen as “un-American.” Retained the traditional white hoods and cross burnings, but also used media outlets and legitimate politics to gain power.Retained the traditional white hoods and cross burnings, but also used media outlets and legitimate politics to gain power. –Politicians in Indiana and Texas needed to gain Klan support in order to be reelected. Punished their victims with whippings, tarrings, and lynchings.Punished their victims with whippings, tarrings, and lynchings. Klan March on Washington

37 Rebirth Of The Ku Klux Klan Decline Tolerated by native- born Americans for a while.Tolerated by native- born Americans for a while. –Upheld traditional values of America. –Would drive out bootleggers, gamblers, and immigrants who threatened the American lifestyle. KKK Anti-Labor Day Rally

38 Rebirth Of The Ku Klux Klan Decline Would come under fire.Would come under fire. –National leadership could not control local chapters. –1923, Northern papers investigate the Klan, finding fraud and corruption. –1925, Indiana Grand Dragon David Stephenson convicted of murder. Grand Dragon Stephenson


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