Presentation on theme: "LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT"— Presentation transcript:
1LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT STANDARD(S): Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation.LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBATExplain America’s desire for normalcy after the war and a fear of communism and foreigners led to isolationism
3America Struggles with Postwar Issues Section 1America Struggles with Postwar IssuesA desire for normality after the war and a fear of communism and “foreigners” lead to postwar isolationism.NEXT
4Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues 1SECTIONAmericans Struggle with Postwar IssuesPostwar TrendsThe Effects of Peace on the Public• War leaves Americans exhausted; debate over League divides them• Economy adjusting: cost of living doubles; farm, factory orders down- soldiers take jobs from women, minorities- farmers, factory workers suffer• Nativism—prejudice against foreign-born people—sweeps nation• Isolationism—pulling away from world affairs—becomes popularNEXT
5SECTION 1: AMERICAN POSTWAR ISSUES The American public was exhausted from World War IPublic debate over the League of Nations had divided AmericaAn economic downturn meant many faced unemploymentA wave of nativism swept the nation
6ISOLATIONISM Many Americans adopted a belief in isolationism Isolationism meant pulling away from involvement in world affairs
7Fear of Communism The Red Scare 1 SECTIONFear of CommunismThe Red Scare• Communism—economic, political system, single-party government- ruled by dictator- no private property1919 Vladimir I. Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up Communist state in RussiaU.S. Communist Party forms; some Industrial Workers of the World joinBombs mailed to government, businesses; people fear Red conspiracyAttorney General A. Mitchell Palmer takes actionContinued . . .NEXT
8SOVIET UNION COMMUNISM Russia was transformed into the Soviet Union in 1917, a Communist stateVladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks and overthrew the Czarist regimeHe was a follower of the Marxist doctrine of social equalityA Communist party was formed in America, tooLenin
9FEAR OF COMMUNISMOne perceived threat to American life was the spread of CommunismCommunism is an economic and political system based on a single-governmental party, equal distribution of resources, no private property and rule by a dictatorship
101SECTIONcontinued Fear of CommunismThe Palmer Raids• Palmer, J. Edgar Hoover hunt down Communists, socialists, anarchists• Anarchists oppose any form of government• Raids trample civil rights, fail to find evidence of conspiracyContinued . . .NEXT
14Guided ReadingAfter World War I, many Americans feared that Communist would take over the country.1. How did the Justice Department under A. Mitchell Palmer respond to this fear?2. Why did Palmer eventually lose his standing with the American public?Launched raids against suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists;arrested, jailed, and deported suspected radicalsLooked foolish when his raids failed to turn up evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy
15Chapter 12 Section 1A – Why did Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer launch a series of raids against suspected Communists?He believed that a communist revolution was imminent in the United StatesAnd he needed an issue on which to campaign for the 1920 democratic presidential nomination.
161SECTIONcontinued Fear of CommunismSacco and VanzettiRed Scare feeds fear of foreigners, ruins reputations, wrecks lives1920, Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrants, anarchists, arrested- charged with robbery, murder- trial does not prove guiltJury finds them guilty; widespread protests in U.S., abroad- Sacco, Vanzetti executed 1927NEXT
17SACCO & VANZETTI The Red Scare fed nativism in America Italian anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti were a shoemaker and a fish peddlerConvicted of robbery and murder despite flimsy evidence, their execution was symbolic of discrimination against radical beliefs during the Red Scare
18B – According to Vanzetti, what were the reasons for his imprisonment? Because he was a political radical and a foreigner.
19Limiting Immigration Anti-Immigrant Attitudes 1 SECTIONLimiting ImmigrationAnti-Immigrant AttitudesNativists: fewer unskilled jobs available, fewer immigrants neededThink immigrant anarchists and socialists are CommunistContinued . . .NEXT
21Limiting Immigration The Klan Rises Again 1 SECTIONLimiting ImmigrationThe Klan Rises AgainBigots use anti-communism to harass groups unlike themselvesKKK opposes blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, unions, saloons- 1924, 4.5 million membersKlan controls many states’ politics; violence leads to less powerContinued . . .NEXT
22THE KLAN RISES AGAINAs the Red Scare and anti-immigrant attitudes reached a peak, the KKK was more popular than everBy 1924, the Klan had 4.5 million members
24C – What were the main goals of the Ku Klux Klan at this time? To keep America under the control of white, native-born males;To get rid of other groups, including Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people, and radicals;To oppose union organizers;To help enforce prohibition.
25Guided ReadingAfter World War I, many Americans feared that Communist would take over the country.3. How did the Ku Klux Klan respond to this fear?4. Why did the Klan eventually lose popularity and membership?Used it as an excuse to harass anyone unlike themselves, including African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, union members, and intellectualsThe Klan members' racial violence and criminal activities turned many Americans against them.
26The Quota System 1 • 1919–1921, number of immigrants grows almost 600% SECTIONcontinued Limiting ImmigrationThe Quota System• 1919–1921, number of immigrants grows almost 600%• Quota system sets maximum number can enter U.S. from each country- sharply reduces European immigration• 1924, European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890• Discriminates against southern, eastern Europeans• Prohibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S., Japan• Does not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enterNEXT
27CONGRESS LIMITS IMMIGRATION Congress, in response to nativist pressure, decided to limit immigration from southern and eastern EuropeThe Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set up a quota system to control and restrict immigrationAmerica changed its formally permissive immigration policy
28D – Why did congress make changes in immigration laws during the 1920’s? The number of immigrants increased sharply, and many Americans did not want people from foreign countries entering the nation.Since some of them were anarchist and socialists and some were believed to be communists
29A Time of Labor Unrest Postwar Labor Issues 1 SECTIONA Time of Labor UnrestPostwar Labor IssuesGovernment doesn’t allow strikes in wartime; over 3,000 strikesEmployers against raises, unions; label strikers as CommunistsContinued . . .NEXT
30A TIME OF LABOR UNRESTStrikes were outlawed during WWI, however in 1919 there were more than 3,000 strikes involving 4 million workers
31A Time of Labor Unrest The Boston Police Strike 1 SECTIONA Time of Labor UnrestThe Boston Police StrikeBoston police strike over raises, right to unionizeCalvin Coolidge ends strike, replaces strikers with new policemenContinued . . .NEXT
32BOSTON POLICE STRIKEBoston police had not received a raise in years and were denied the right to unionizeThe National Guard was calledNew cops were hired
33Guided ReadingPublic Opinion turned against labor unions as many Americas came to believe that unions encouraged communism.5. Why was the strike by the Boston Police unpopular with the public?Why did Massachusetts governor Calvin Coolidge become so popular?Threatened public safety;appeared to be an act of communism or anarchismCalled in the National Guard to restore order, leading to the end of the strike
34The Coal Miners’ Strike 1SECTIONcontinued A Time of Labor UnrestThe Coal Miners’ Strike1919, John L. Lewis becomes head of United Mine Workers of AmericaLeads strike; defies court order to work; accepts arbitrationMiners receive 27% wage increase; Lewis becomes national heroNEXT
35COAL MINERS’ STRIKELewisIn 1919, United Mine Workers led by John L. Lewis called a Strike on November 1Lewis met with an arbitrator appointed byPresident WilsonLewis won a 27% pay raise and washailed a hero
36Labor Movement Loses Appeal 1SECTIONcontinued A Time of Labor UnrestLabor Movement Loses AppealIn 1920s, union membership drops from over 5 million to 3.5 millionLess than 1% of African Americans, just over 3% whites in unionsNEXT
371920s: TOUGH TIMES FOR UNIONS The 1920s hurt the labor movementUnion membership dropped from 5 million to 3.5 millionWhy?African Americans were excluded from membership and immigrants were willing to work in poor conditionsFord Foundry workers in 1926; only 1% of black workers were in Unions at the time
38A Time of Labor Unrest The Steel Mill Strike 1 SECTIONA Time of Labor UnrestThe Steel Mill Strike1919, steel workers strike; companies use force, later negotiateTalks deadlock; Wilson appeals; strike endsreport on conditions leads to 8-hour dayContinued . . .NEXT
39STEEL MILL STRIKEIn September of 1919, the U.S. Steel Corporation refused to meet with union representativesIn response, over 300,000 workers struckScabs were hired while strikers were beaten by police and federal troopsThe strike was settled in 1920 with an 8-hour day but no union
40Guided ReadingPublic Opinion turned against labor unions as many Americas came to believe that unions encouraged communism.6. Why was the strikes at U.S. Steel unpopular7. How did President Wilson respond to the steel strike?People believed the steel companies' propaganda linking the strikers and their leaders to communism;violence had broken out, 'which alarmed a public that was still ignorant of the severe working conditions in the mills.Made a written plea for peace between the Strikers and steel companies
41E – Compare the results of the Boston Police strike and the steel strike. Neither strike was successful;The police lost their jobs, and the steel workers won nothing.