Presentation on theme: "STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Explain America’s desire for."— Presentation transcript:
STANDARD(S): 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation. LESSON OBJECTIVES/ GOALS/ SWBAT 1.Explain America’s desire for normalcy after the war and a fear of communism and foreigners led to isolationism
Section 1 America Struggles with Postwar Issues A desire for normality after the war and a fear of communism and “foreigners” lead to postwar isolationism. NEXT
Postwar Trends The Effects of Peace on the Public War leaves Americans exhausted; debate over League divides them Economy adjusting: cost of living doubles; farm, factory orders down - soldiers take jobs from women, minorities - farmers, factory workers suffer Nativism—prejudice against foreign-born people— sweeps nation Isolationism—pulling away from world affairs— becomes popular Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues 1 SECTION NEXT
SECTION 1: AMERICAN POSTWAR ISSUES The American public was exhausted from World War I Public debate over the League of Nations had divided America An economic downturn meant many faced unemployment A wave of nativism swept the nation
ISOLATIONISM Many Americans adopted a belief in isolationism Isolationism meant pulling away from involvement in world affairs
The Red Scare Communism—economic, political system, single- party government - ruled by dictator - no private property 1919 Vladimir I. Lenin, Bolsheviks, set up Communist state in Russia U.S. Communist Party forms; some Industrial Workers of the World join Bombs mailed to government, businesses; people fear Red conspiracy Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer takes action 1 SECTION NEXT Fear of Communism Continued...
SOVIET UNION COMMUNISM Russia was transformed into the Soviet Union in 1917, a Communist state Vladimir Lenin led the Bolsheviks and overthrew the Czarist regime He was a follower of the Marxist doctrine of social equality A Communist party was formed in America, too Lenin
FEAR OF COMMUNISM One perceived threat to American life was the spread of Communism Communism is an economic and political system based on a single-governmental party, equal distribution of resources, no private property and rule by a dictatorship
continued Fear of Communism The Palmer Raids Palmer, J. Edgar Hoover hunt down Communists, socialists, anarchists Anarchists oppose any form of government Raids trample civil rights, fail to find evidence of conspiracy 1 SECTION NEXT Continued...
Guided Reading After World War I, many Americans feared that Communist would take over the country. 1. How did the Justice Department under A. Mitchell Palmer respond to this fear? 2. Why did Palmer eventually lose his standing with the American public? Launched raids against suspected Communists, socialists, and anarchists; arrested, jailed, and deported suspected radicals Looked foolish when his raids failed to turn up evidence of a revolutionary conspiracy
Chapter 12 Section 1 A – Why did Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer launch a series of raids against suspected Communists? –He believed that a communist revolution was imminent in the United States –And he needed an issue on which to campaign for the 1920 democratic presidential nomination.
continued Fear of Communism Sacco and Vanzetti Red Scare feeds fear of foreigners, ruins reputations, wrecks lives 1920, Sacco and Vanzetti, Italian immigrants, anarchists, arrested - charged with robbery, murder - trial does not prove guilt Jury finds them guilty; widespread protests in U.S., abroad - Sacco, Vanzetti executed 1927 1 SECTION NEXT
SACCO & VANZETTI The Red Scare fed nativism in America Italian anarchists Sacco & Vanzetti were a shoemaker and a fish peddler Convicted of robbery and murder despite flimsy evidence, their execution was symbolic of discrimination against radical beliefs during the Red Scare
B – According to Vanzetti, what were the reasons for his imprisonment? –Because he was a political radical and a foreigner.
Limiting Immigration Anti-Immigrant Attitudes Nativists: fewer unskilled jobs available, fewer immigrants needed Think immigrant anarchists and socialists are Communist 1 SECTION NEXT Continued...
Limiting Immigration 1 SECTION NEXT The Klan Rises Again Bigots use anti-communism to harass groups unlike themselves KKK opposes blacks, Catholics, Jews, immigrants, unions, saloons - 1924, 4.5 million members Klan controls many states’ politics; violence leads to less power Continued...
THE KLAN RISES AGAIN As the Red Scare and anti-immigrant attitudes reached a peak, the KKK was more popular than ever By 1924, the Klan had 4.5 million members
C – What were the main goals of the Ku Klux Klan at this time? –To keep America under the control of white, native-born males; –To get rid of other groups, including Roman Catholics, Jews, and foreign-born people, and radicals; –To oppose union organizers; –To help enforce prohibition.
Guided Reading After World War I, many Americans feared that Communist would take over the country. 3. How did the Ku Klux Klan respond to this fear? 4. Why did the Klan eventually lose popularity and membership? Used it as an excuse to harass anyone unlike themselves, including African Americans, immigrants, Catholics, Jews, union members, and intellectuals The Klan members' racial violence and criminal activities turned many Americans against them.
continued Limiting Immigration The Quota System 1919–1921, number of immigrants grows almost 600% Quota system sets maximum number can enter U.S. from each country - sharply reduces European immigration 1924, European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890 Discriminates against southern, eastern Europeans Prohibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S., Japan Does not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enter 1 SECTION NEXT
CONGRESS LIMITS IMMIGRATION Congress, in response to nativist pressure, decided to limit immigration from southern and eastern Europe The Emergency Quota Act of 1921 set up a quota system to control and restrict immigration America changed its formally permissive immigration policy
D – Why did congress make changes in immigration laws during the 1920’s? –The number of immigrants increased sharply, and many Americans did not want people from foreign countries entering the nation. –Since some of them were anarchist and socialists and some were believed to be communists
A Time of Labor Unrest Postwar Labor Issues Government doesn’t allow strikes in wartime; 1919 over 3,000 strikes Employers against raises, unions; label strikers as Communists 1 SECTION NEXT Continued...
A TIME OF LABOR UNREST Strikes were outlawed during WWI, however in 1919 there were more than 3,000 strikes involving 4 million workers
A Time of Labor Unrest 1 SECTION NEXT The Boston Police Strike Boston police strike over raises, right to unionize Calvin Coolidge ends strike, replaces strikers with new policemen Continued...
BOSTON POLICE STRIKE Boston police had not received a raise in years and were denied the right to unionize The National Guard was called New cops were hired
Guided Reading Public Opinion turned against labor unions as many Americas came to believe that unions encouraged communism. 5. Why was the strike by the Boston Police unpopular with the public? Why did Massachusetts governor Calvin Coolidge become so popular? Threatened public safety; appeared to be an act of communism or anarchism Called in the National Guard to restore order, leading to the end of the strike
continued A Time of Labor Unrest The Coal Miners’ Strike 1919, John L. Lewis becomes head of United Mine Workers of America Leads strike; defies court order to work; accepts arbitration Miners receive 27% wage increase; Lewis becomes national hero 1 SECTION NEXT
COAL MINERS’ STRIKE In 1919, United Mine Workers led by John L. Lewis called a Strike on November 1 Lewis met with an arbitrator appointed by President Wilson Lewis won a 27% pay raise and was hailed a hero Lewis
continued A Time of Labor Unrest 1 SECTION NEXT Labor Movement Loses Appeal In 1920s, union membership drops from over 5 million to 3.5 million Less than 1% of African Americans, just over 3% whites in unions
1920s: TOUGH TIMES FOR UNIONS The 1920s hurt the labor movement Union membership dropped from 5 million to 3.5 million Why? –African Americans were excluded from membership and immigrants were willing to work in poor conditions Ford Foundry workers in 1926; only 1% of black workers were in Unions at the time
A Time of Labor Unrest 1 SECTION NEXT The Steel Mill Strike 1919, steel workers strike; companies use force, later negotiate Talks deadlock; Wilson appeals; strike ends - 1923 report on conditions leads to 8-hour day Continued...
STEEL MILL STRIKE In September of 1919, the U.S. Steel Corporation refused to meet with union representatives In response, over 300,000 workers struck Scabs were hired while strikers were beaten by police and federal troops The strike was settled in 1920 with an 8- hour day but no union
Guided Reading Public Opinion turned against labor unions as many Americas came to believe that unions encouraged communism. 6. Why was the strikes at U.S. Steel unpopular 7. How did President Wilson respond to the steel strike? People believed the steel companies' propaganda linking the strikers and their leaders to communism; violence had broken out, 'which alarmed a public that was still ignorant of the severe working conditions in the mills. Made a written plea for peace between the Strikers and steel companies
E – Compare the results of the Boston Police strike and the steel strike. –Neither strike was successful; –The police lost their jobs, and the steel workers won nothing.