Important figures German scholar : Wilhelm Victor (1882) English phonetician: Henry Sweet (1900) European linguist: Otto Jespersen (1904) English linguist: Harold Palmer American linguist: Leonard Bloomfield (1914) American professor: Charles C. Fries (1945)
German scholar : Wilhelm Victor 1882 pamphelet *Lanugage Instruction Must Turn Around* advocated emphasis on “language”rather than writing.
English phonetician: Henry Sweet 1900 book “The Practical Study of Languages” “...all study of language, whether theoretical or practical, ought to be based on the spoken language”
European linguist: Otto Jespersen 1904 book “How to teach a Foreign Language” called his method of the natural, rational, direct, phonetic, imitative, analytical, concrete, and conversational method.
American linguist: Leonard Bloomfield 1914 book “Introduction to Linguistic Science” Language is not the same as writing. language finds its primary expression in speech. advocated a speaking knowledge as the most desirable goal of language instruction.
American professor: Charles C. Fries 1945 book Teaching and learning English as a Foreign Language OA for him is –mastery of basic structures –drills in oral production and reception –building of accurate and fluent linguistic habits
English linguist: Harold Palmer 1921 book Principles of Language Study developed a more scientific foundation for oral method than Direct Method. “..let the example precede or even replace the rule...”
Palmer (cont.) “..give books, pencils, and pens to the students and make them give them to you... “..speak about writing words and words being written or about speaking English and English being spoken...”
The view of language runs through these men: Language is a code consisting of a set of habits!!
Viewed from today... Perspectives Suitable for introduction to the language. Oral production without risk. Values practical grammar and vocabulary. An accessible method for teachers...if they have good curriculum. Inexpensive to use.