Red Scare & Palmer Raids Objective: Analyze the events and the results of the Red Scare and the Palmer Raids
Government actions 1921-The government had in the time issued immigration quotas to stop the flow of people entering the United States. The Red Scare had brought fear of communism coming to the U.S. and the blame the foreigners. Palmer Raids(1919-1921) were accusations of about 150,00 people
A push towards Isolationism Several factors led many in the U.S. to favor policies that decreased the role of the country in world affairs. Economic Recession: A short, but severe recession hit the country as the economy adjusted to returning vets, a shifting from wartime goods to peacetime goods, and a higher standard of living. Wartime Casualties: The high number of casualties and the total devastation of the war made many question whether or not the U.S. should be willing to get involved in European affairs. Communism: The “red scare” of 1919-1920 swept across America as a small communist party formed and strikes became common across America. (More on this to follow) How would isolationism help address these issues? What are some of the possible negative consequences of isolationism? All in all, its just another brick in the wall.
The Red Scare Shortly after the end of World War I and the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, the Red Scare took hold in the United States. A nationwide fear of communists, socialists, anarchists, and other dissidents suddenly grabbed the American psyche in 1919 following a series of anarchist bombings. The nation was gripped in fear. Innocent people were jailed for expressing their views, civil liberties were ignored, and many Americans feared that a Bolshevik-style revolution was at hand. Then, in the early 1920s, the fear seemed to dissipate just as quickly as it had begun, and the Red Scare was over.
Marx and Engels 1917—Bolshevik Revolution in Russia Communism called for a worldwide revolution Struggle between workers and capitalists Fueled the Red Scare in the U.S.
Red Scare, 1919 to 1921, was a time of great upheaval…U.S. “scared out of their wits". "Reds” (Communists)."Reds” as they were called, "Anarchists” or "Outside Foreign-Born Radical Agitators” (Communists). Anti-red hysteria came about after WWI and the Russian Revolution. 6,000 immigrants the government suspected of being Communists were arrested (Palmer Raids) and 600 were deported or expelled from the U.S. No due process was followed Attorney General Mitchell Palmer
“Fighting Quaker” Attorney Gen. Palmer led crusade against leftists with suspect allegiance, 6000 suspects held. Dec. 1919: 249 alien radicals deported to Russia on the ship Buford. Sept. 1920: Hysteria heightened by bomb on Wall Street. The “Red Scare”
1921: Many regarded the conviction of Sacco & Vanzetti as a “judicial lynching” because they were Italians, atheists, anarchists, and draft dodgers. Several states passed criminal syndicalism laws: mere advocacy of violence for social change was criminalized. 1920: 5 NY legislators denied seats because they were Socialists. Conservative business owners used “scare” against labor: “open” shop was “American plan.” What is an “open shop?”
Nativism and the Legal System-The Sacco-Vanzetti Case 2 men shot and killed two employees of a shoe store in Braintree Ma, Robbing it of $15,000. Sacco and Vanzetti two Italian immigrants were arrested, charged, and tried for the crime. Men were anarchists (someone who opposes all forms of government) Sacco owned a gun similar to the one used in the crime- bullets matched. No conclusive proof to their committing of the crime. Both were found guilty and sentenced to death – Guilty or victims of prejudice?
Italian immigrants murderingNicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti were Italian immigrants charged with murdering a guard and robbing a shoe factory in Braintree, Mass. The trial lasted 1920-1927. Convicted on circumstantial evidence, many believed they had been framed for the crime because of their anarchist and pro-union activities. anti-foreignismIn this time period, anti-foreignism was high as well. Liberals and radicals rallied around the two men, but they would be executed.
The Red Scare After the 1917 Bolshevik Revolution in Russia, Americans had a fear of Communism. Laborers were lumped together with communists.
The Red Scare Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer conducted the Palmer Raids which rounded up thousands of “communists”. Some 249 communists were sent back to Russia on the “Soviet Ark”. Labor Unions were also lumped together with communism.
The Red Scare As a result of the aforementioned, the ACLU or American Civil Liberties Union was formed by Felix Frankfurter
A. Mitchell Palmer Attorney General – Appointed in 1919 Convinced that he needed to protect Americans from political radicals (communists)
A. Mitchell Palmer Sent out government agents on illegal raids to hunt down suspected radicals Known as the Palmer Raids His popularity fell when warnings of a plot to overthrow the government were proven foolish