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Uncertainty in weather and climate prediction by Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Philosophical Transactions A Volume 369(1956): December 13, 2011 ©2011 by The Royal Society
Examples of finite-time error growth on the Lorenz attractor for three probabilistic predictions starting from different points on the attractor. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Schematic of a probabilistic weather forecast using initial condition uncertainties. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Example of 66 h probabilistic forecast for 15–16 October Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Statistics of ensemble mean forecast error (r.m.s.e.; solid line) and ensemble spread (dotted line) in Northern Hemisphere from three ensemble prediction systems (NCEP, National Center for Environmental Prediction; CMC, Meteorological Service of Canada; ECM... Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Two infrared satellite images of organized tropical convection over the Indian Ocean for (a) 3 May and (b) 10 May in Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Examples of the time series of the X variable in the Lorenz model, evolving on the Lorenz attractor for (a) no external forcing and for (b) strong external forcing. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Two contrasting ensemble seasonal forecasts from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) for the evolution of El Nino. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Schematic of ensemble prediction system on seasonal to decadal time scales based on figure 1, showing (a) the impact of model biases and (b) a changing climate. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
(a) Response of the annual mean surface temperature and (b) precipitation to Special Report on Emission Scenarios A1B emissions, in 21 climate models that contributed to the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Three potential scenarios of summer rainfall in the 2080s for a high emission scenario (from UKCP09) expressed as a percentage change from the current climate. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Example of the partitioning of uncertainty in projections of southeast England rainfall for the (a) 2020s and (b) 2080s from UKCP09. Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
Time series of sea surface temperatures (Ts) for the Nino3 region (5° S–5° N and 150° W–90° W), in the equatorial east Pacific from (a) 2000 years of climate model simulation with constant forcing representative of the current climate; (b) shows the equival... Julia Slingo, and Tim Palmer Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 2011;369: ©2011 by The Royal Society
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