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Respiration Releases energy from glucose  ATP. Respiration Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi  6 CO.

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Presentation on theme: "Respiration Releases energy from glucose  ATP. Respiration Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 38 ADP + 38 Pi  6 CO."— Presentation transcript:

1 Respiration Releases energy from glucose  ATP

2 Respiration Glucose + oxygen  carbon dioxide + water + ATP C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O ADP + 38 Pi  6 CO H 2 O + 36 ATP (introduction, 1.5min)

3 Rod shaped Double membrane increase surface areaInner membrane folded extensively into cristae to increase surface area for reactions

4 ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate) Adenosine Diphosphate phosphate ADP + Pi + energy  ATP High energy phosphate bonds Universal energy carrier Quick easy source of energy (compared to glucose)

5 Pi Adenosine Pi Adenosine Pi Energy from Glucose Energy for Life

6 Respiration – 3 phases 1.Glycolysis 1.Glycolysis (cytoplasm) Glucose  2 pyruvate 2.Krebs Cycle 2.Krebs Cycle (matrix) Pyruvate  CO 2 & H 3.Electron transfer chain 3.Electron transfer chain (mitochondrial membrane). Electrons are passed along a series of carriers. Oxygen is the final acceptor of H+ and e- to make water.

7 cytoplasmmatrixmembranes GLUCOSE PYRUVATE 2ATP GLYCOLYSIS 2ATP 34ATP OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION CO 2 NADH 2 NAD FAD NADH 2 FADH 2 KREB’S CYCLE NAD O2O2 H2OH2O ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN

8 Glycolysis Glucose too large to diffuse into mitochondria Glucose (6C)  2 pyruvate (3C) NAD  NADH + H + 2 ATP notDoes not require oxygen

9 CytoplasmMembraneMitochondrion Glucose (6C) Alcohol & CO 2 Lactic acid yeast fermentation lactic fermentation Pyruvate (3C) low oxygen normal 2 ATP 4 ADP 4 ATP CO 2 + H 2 O 36 ADP 36 ATP GLYCOLYSISGLYCOLYSIS

10 Kreb’s (citric acid) Cycle Pyruvate  acetyl coA in mitochondria acetyl-coA  2 CO 2 (waste) + coA (recycled) + H 2 –NAD + H 2  NADH 2 –FAD + H 2  FADH 2

11 Krebs Cycle Pyruvate Acetyl coA CO 2 (waste) coA NAD & FAD A co-enzyme carrier molecule NADH 2 FADH 2

12 Electron Transfer Chain NADH 2 + FADH 2  NAD + FAD + H + + high energy electrons e- transferred along a series of electron carriers, cytochromes, in the cristae. Energy from the electrons is used to produce ATP at each move. OxygenOxygen is the final hydrogen acceptor  water

13 NAD H+H+ H+H+ e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- e-e- O ATP NADH 2 e-e- e-e- H2H2 H2OH2O 34 ATP This cannot occur without oxygen!!!!!

14 Rate of respiration 1.↑ Temperature  ↑ reaction rate (up to an optimum temp.) ( ↑ energy of enzymes and substrate  ↑ collisions). 2. ↑ Body’s energy demands  ↑ rate of respiration (Eg running  muscle cells need more energy) 3. Poisons. Eg Cyanide prevents O 2 combining with hydrogen (  ↓ respiration).

15 Where would you expect to find the most mitochondria? eg Muscle and liver cells Active cells with high energy needs

16 MENU Key Words Exercises Quick Quiz MCQ Videos

17 Key words respiration mitochondria cristae surface area matrix ATP glycolysis Kreb’s cycle citric acid cycle electron transport chain glucose pyruvate electron carrier final acceptor acetyl coA NADH 2 FADH 2 oxidative phosphorylation lactic fermentation yeast fermentation anaerobic Back to menu

18 QUICK QUIZ 1.Cellular respiration takes place in the ____ 2.Glucose is broken down into ____ during ____ 3.____ is small enough to enter the mitochondrion 4.____ in the matrix catalyse the reactions of the ____ cycle 5.The inner mitochondrial membrane is folded to increase ____ 6.NAD and FAD carry ____ to the electron transport chain 7.____ is the universal energy carrier 8.Most ATP is produced in the ____ stage 9.____ respiration yields ATP 10.____ respiration occurs in the absence of sufficient oxygen 11.Yeast undergoes ____ under anaerobic conditions 12.Animals produce ____ under anaerobic conditions Back to menu Answers

19 QUICK QUIZ 1.Cellular respiration takes place in the mitochondria 2.Glucose is broken down into pyruvate during glycolysis 3.pyruvate is small enough to enter the mitochondrion 4.enzymes in the matrix catalyse the reactions of the Krebs cycle 5.The inner mitochondrial membrane is folded to increase surface area 6.NAD and FAD carry electrons to the electron transport chain 7.ATP is the universal energy carrier 8.Most ATP is produced in the electron transport chain stage 9.aerobic respiration yields ATP 10.anaerobic respiration occurs in the absence of sufficient oxygen 11.Yeast undergoes fermentation under anaerobic conditions 12.Animals produce lactic acid under anaerobic conditions Back to menu

20 Exercise Workbook pp 67-72, all questions Pathfinder p45 q5 Back to menuREADING Pathfinder p43 Excellence in Biology

21 Videos Back to menu These videos contain more detail than you need, but the basics are very good! Cycle (summary, Wolfe, 8 min)http://www.5min.com/Video/Glycolysis-and-the-Krebs- Cycle (ATP, 10min)http://www.5min.com/Video/Oxidative-Phosphorylation (Glycolysis, 14min)http://www.articlesbase.com/videos/5min/

22 proteinslipidspolysaccharides amino acidsmonosaccharides fatty acids + glycerol pyruvate acetyl coA NADH 2 + FADH 2 wastes - CO 2 + H 2 O Krebs

23 LocationNeedsMakesATP yield Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transfer chain LocationNeedsMakesATP yield GlycolysiscytoplasmGlucosePyruvic acid & hydrogen 2 Krebs cycle matrixPyruvate (or acetyl coA) Cyclic but releases ATP & hydrogen (CO 2 as waste) 2 Electron transfer chain cristaeHydrogen and oxygen ATP & water32-4


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