3 GENERAL POLICY EXAMINATION MARKS Midterm -30% Class tests ( quiz)10% Assignment 5% Class participation5% Final exam -50% Total marks - 100
4 APPROXIMATE COURSE OUTLINE CHAPTERNO OF LECTURES Biochemistry and the organization of cells How it is relevant to pharmacy studies (Introductory class) 1 Chemical components of cells / Biomolecules1 Proteins : Structures and Functions2 The Behavior of Proteins: Enzymes1 The Behavior of Proteins: Enzymes; Mechanism and kinetics 1 Carbohydrates1
5 APPROXIMATE COURSE OUTLINE CHAPTERNO OF LECTURES Lipids1 Glycolysis2 Storage mechanism and control of carbohydrate metabolism, The Citric Acid Cycle 2 Electron transport and oxidative phosporization1 Vitamins and coenzymes1 Lipid metabolism1
6 APPROXIMATE COURSE OUTLINE CHAPTERNO OF LECTURES Structures and functions of DNA1 Replication1 Transcription2 Translation1 Gene Expression and Regulation1
7 Text Books Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry - David L, Nelson - Michael M. Cox Molecular Biology of the cell - Alberts, et al
8 Course Objective The primary focus of this course is to make you all familiar with key biochemical molecules and their role in cellular activities in the body in order to draw attention to the potential disease conditions that may arise as a result of alteration either in biomolecules or cellular activities / metabolism.
9 Suggestions Study the reading material on the same day as discussed in class. Just go through the topic to be discussed before coming to class. After class summarize each lecture in a concise way. Get into a study group. Ask each other questions. Use the text books If you get stuck while studying, check the notes and text books but if you cant find the answer yourself then come to see me. Be sincere with your studies.
10 What is Biochemistry? Study of the chemistry behind life processes It describes in molecular terms the structures, mechanisms and chemical processes shared by all living organisms and provides organizing principles that underlie life in all its diverse forms, principles we refer to collectively as the molecular logic of life.
11 Why we need to study Biochemistry in Pharmacy Course? All disease and remedies for disease, either result from or result in biochemical changes sometimes in seemingly unrelated areas of metabolism. It provides explanation for the cause of diseases and frequently suggest ways by which such diseases could be treated or cured.
12 Cell All life on earth is thought to have evolved from a common ancestor. This is reflected in the common set of metabolic routes that is used by all organisms to combine a few simple elements (mainly C, O, N, H) into all the wonderful and amazing creatures that inhabit the world. Life comes in many shapes, but underlying all this differentiation is common basic plan for building the smallest living component – a cell – small membrane bound compartments filled with a concentrated aqueous solution of chemicals. Cell is the structural and functional unit of life.
13 Characteristics of Cell Energy source Isolation Locomotion Exchange of information, sensors Protection, durability Compartments Blue print
14 Cell On the basis of biochemical characteristics; the diverse organisms of the modern world can be divided into 3 fundamental domains Archaebacteria Extreme thermophiles Methanogens Extreme Halophiles Eucaryotes Fungi Plants Animals Eubacteria Cyanobacteria Gram +ve bacteria Purple bacteria
15 Procaryotic Cell
16 Eukaryotic Cell
17 Eukaryotic cell compartments and their major function CompartmentMajor functionsComposition Plasma membraneTransport of ions and molecules Recognition Receptors for small and large molecules Cell morphology and movement lipid, protein NucleusDNA synthesis and repair RNA synthesis NucleolusRNA processing and ribosome synthesis nucleic acid, protein Endoplasmic reticulum Membrane synthesis Synthesis of proteins and lipids for cell organelles and for export Lipid synthesis Detoxication reactions lipid, protein Golgi apparatusModification and sorting of proteins for incorporation into organelles and for export Export of proteins lipid, protein
18 Eukaryotic cell compartments and their major function CompartmentMajor functionsComposition MitochondriaEnergy conservation Cellular respiration Oxidation of carbohydrates and lipids Urea and heme synthesis lipid, protein LysosomesCellular digestion: hydrolysis of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids PeroxisomesOxidative reactions involving utilization of H2O2 lipid, protein Microtubules and rnicrofilaments Cell cytoskeleton Cell morphology Cell motility Intracellular movements CytosolMetabolism of carbohydrates, lipids - amino acids, and nucleotides Protein synthesis Mainly protein, small molecules lipid
19 Special plant cell organelles Chloroplast – photosynthetic apparatus Cell Wall – rigidity and protection Vacuoles – space filling, intracellular digestion
20 Comparison of procaryotic and eucaryotic organisms ProcaryotesEucaryotes OrganismsBacteria and cyanobacteriaProtists, fungi,planta & animals Cell SizeGenerally 1 to 10 µm in linear dimension MetabolismAnaerobic or aerobicaerobic OrganellesFew or noneNucleus, mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum etc. DNACircular DNA in cytoplasmVery long linear DNA molecules containing many noncoding regions; bounded by nuclear envelope RNA and proteinRNA and protein synthesized in same compartment RNA synthesized and processed in nucleus; proteins synthesized in cytoplasm
21 Comparison of procaryotic and eucaryotic organisms ProcaryotesEucaryotes CytoplasmNo cytoskeleton: cytoplasmic streaming, endocytosis, and exocytosis all absent cytoskeleton composed of protein filaments; cytoplasmic streaming; endocytosis and exocytosis Cell divisionChromosomes pulled apart by attachments to plasma membrane Chromosomes pulled apart by cytoskeletal spindle apparatus Cellular organization Mainly unicellularMainly multicellular, with differentiation of many cell types
22 Cooperation and specialization The cells of a higher organisms become specialized and cooperate. By specialization and cooperation the cells combine to form a coordinated single organism with more capabilities than any of its component parts. The cells of the vertebrate body exhibit more than 200 different modes of specialization, e.g., in human body there are over 200 types of cells which are assembled into a variety of types of tissues such as – Epithelia Connective tissue Muscle Nervous Tissue