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Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 3 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Physical Development.

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Presentation on theme: "Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 3 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Physical Development."— Presentation transcript:

1 Slide 1 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. LIFE-SPAN DEVELOPMENT 3 A Topical Approach to John W. Santrock Physical Development and Biological Aging

2 Slide 2 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Physical Development and Biological Aging Body Growth and Change The Brain Sleep Longevity

3 Slide 3 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Patterns of Growth Cephalocaudal pattern — growth occurs first at the top—the head—and gradually proceeds from top to bottom Proximodistal pattern — growth starts at the center of the body and moves toward the extremities Body Growth and Change

4 Slide 4 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood Body Growth and Change Slower, consistent growth Muscle mass and strength increase Boys stronger, body proportions change Middle and Late Childhood Growth slows, patterns vary individually Girls slightly smaller and lighter Girls gain fat, boys gain muscle Early Childhood Average 20 inches, 7 ½ lbs at birth Triple weight by 1 year ½ adult height, 20% adult weight by age 2 Infancy

5 Slide 5 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fig. 3.1 Changes in Proportions of the Human Body During Growth Body Growth and Change

6 Slide 6 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Height and Weight in Infancy and Childhood Body Growth and Change Why some children unusually short Congenital factors Growth hormone deficiency Physical problem developed in childhood Maternal smoking during pregnancy Emotional difficulty

7 Slide 7 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Puberty Period of rapid physical maturation involving hormonal and bodily changes that take place in early adolescence Two phases: –Adrenarche — changes in adrenal glands –Gonardarche Menarche Spermarche Body Growth and Change

8 Slide 8 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Determinants of Puberty Heredity Hormones –Hypothalamus, pituitary gland, gonads –Androgens (testosterone) –Estrogens (estradiol) –Adrenarche –Gonadarche (menarche, spermarche) Weight and Body Fat Body Growth and Change

9 Slide 9 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Hormone Levels by Sex and Pubertal Stage for Testosterone and Estadiol Body Growth and Change Fig. 3.2

10 Slide 10 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Pubertal Growth Spurt Body Growth and Change Fig. 3.3

11 Slide 11 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fig. 3.4 Normal Range and Average Development of Sexual Characteristics in Males and Females

12 Slide 12 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Changing Trends in Puberty Body Growth and Change Onset of puberty beginning earlier –Norway — menarche at 17 in 1840s, now 13 –U.S. — menarche at 15 in 1840s, now 12½ White girls at average age of 10 African American girls at average age 8 to 9

13 Slide 13 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Body Image in Puberty Adolescents become preoccupied by bodies –Overall, girls less satisfied, boys more satisfied –Throughout puberty… Girls’ dissatisfaction increases — body fat increases Boys’ satisfaction increases — muscle mass increases Body Growth and Change

14 Slide 14 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Body Image in Puberty Early and Late Maturation –Early boys more positive, better peer relations –Late boys less positive but have more positive identity by 30s than early boys –Early girls positive but potential problems –Late girls more positive about bodies in late adolescence Body Growth and Change

15 Slide 15 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Early Adulthood Physical changes may be subtle – Height is constant – Many reach peak of muscle tone and strength in late teens and twenties – Peak in joint functions in twenties – Decline in the thirties Body Growth and Change

16 Slide 16 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Middle Adulthood Physical – Lose height, gain weight – More wrinkling, sagging in 40s and 50s – Youth-oriented culture motivates life style changes Strength, bone density, flexibility decrease – 1 to 2 percent loss each year after age 50 Body Growth and Change

17 Slide 17 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Middle Adulthood Cardiovascular system and lungs – Cholesterol and clogged arteries – Blood pressure increases – Decreased lung capacity after age 55 Sexuality changes – Climacteric — fertility declines – Menopause — menstrual periods cease Body Growth and Change

18 Slide 18 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Lung Capacity, Smoking and Age Body Growth and Change Fig. 3.5

19 Slide 19 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Late Adulthood Variability in physical declines – Socioeconomic status is a big factor Physical appearance – Wrinkles, age spots, height and weight loss – Gradual muscle loss; weightlifting can slow process Circulatory system – Increased blood pressure; linked to chronic conditions and longevity Body Growth and Change

20 Slide 20 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Brain Physiology Brain structure – Forebrain – Two hemispheres: usually work together and each lobe has a primary function – Cerebral cortex – Amygdala – Hippocampus The Brain

21 Slide 21 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain’s Four Lobes The Brain Fig. 3.7

22 Slide 22 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Functions of Lobes of the Cortex Frontal lobes Occipital lobes Temporal lobes Involved in voluntary movement, thinking, personality, and intentionality or purpose Function in vision Active role in hearing, language processing, and memory Parietal lobes Roles in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control The Brain

23 Slide 23 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Brain Physiology Neurons — nerve cells handling information processing at the cellular level – Axon, dendrites, synapses – Neurotransmitters: dopamine – Myelin sheath – Neural circuits Lateralization — specialization of functions in one hemisphere of cerebral cortex The Brain

24 Slide 24 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Neuron The Brain Fig. 3.8

25 Slide 25 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain In Infancy Extensive brain development in utero – Born with about 100 billion neurons – Enriched early experiences can enhance brain growth and functioning – Brain flexibility and resilience demonstrated in deprived environments Experience determines brain connections Shaken Baby Syndrome The Brain

26 Slide 26 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain In Infancy Changing neurons – Myelination – Rapid growth of myelin sheath, dendrite and synapse connections – Blooming and pruning of connections in brain – Peak synaptic overproduction: influenced by heredity and environment The Brain

27 Slide 27 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain In Infancy Electroencephalogram measures brain activity — spurt in EEG activity at 1½ - 2 years of age At birth, left hemisphere specializes as infants listen to speech Brain areas do not mature uniformly; skills affected by myelination and interconnections The Brain

28 Slide 28 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Dendritic Spreading Fig The Brain

29 Slide 29 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Fig Synaptic Density in Human Brain from Infancy to Adulthood

30 Slide 30 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain in Childhood During early childhood, the brain and head grow more rapidly than any other part of the body — growth curves Some of brain’s increase due to mylenation and some due to increase in number and size of dendrites Dopamine: considerable increase from ages 3 to 6 years The Brain

31 Slide 31 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Growth Curves for Head and Brain and for Height and Weight Fig The Brain

32 Slide 32 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain in Adolescence Emotional processing differences between adolescents (10-18 years) and adults (20-40 years) –Adolescents: Gut responses –Adults: rational, reasoned responses Limbic system structures (amygdala, hippocampus) increase in volume The Brain

33 Slide 33 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Brain in Adolescence Adolescent emotions — – Slow development of prefrontal cortex – Poor self-control; seek rewards and pleasure – Seek novelty; increased risk-taking – Lack of practical experiences; immature judgment The Brain

34 Slide 34 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging The Shrinking, Slowing Brain – Brain loss: 5-10% of weight in ages 20 to 90 – Dendrites decrease; death of brain cells – Shrinkage of prefrontal cortex – General slowing of function in brain and spinal cord begins in middle adulthood and accelerates in late adulthood – Reductions in neurotransmitters The Brain

35 Slide 35 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The Adapting Brain Grows new brain cells throughout life – Extent depends on environment Dendrite growth continues through 70s Brain rewires to compensate for losses More myelination between frontal cortex and limbic system facilitates reflection Less lateralization with age The Brain

36 Slide 36 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Preventing and Treating Brain Diseases Brain has ability to grow and change, even in old age Positive emotions linked to longevity Intellectual stimulation Folic acid reduces risks and damage The Brain

37 Slide 37 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sleep in Infancy Newborns average hours a day Varied sleeping patterns – Longest sleep period: 11 pm to 7 am – May change from longer to shorter sleep periods – Most close to adult patterns by 4 months More REM sleep than any other time of life Shared sleeping with parents is controversial Sleep

38 Slide 38 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sleep Across the Human Life Span Fig. 3.18

39 Slide 39 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. SIDS Sleep –Having siblings who died of SIDS –African American and Eskimo infants –Lower SES groups –Exposure to cigarette smoke –Infants ages 4 to 6 wks –Sleeping on stomachs, use of soft bedding –Low birth weight; diagnosed with sleep apnea Infant stops breathing, usually during night, and suddenly dies without apparent cause At highest risk

40 Slide 40 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sleep in Early Childhood Most young children sleep through the night and have one daytime nap –Nightmares: frightening dreams –Night Terrors: sudden arousal from sleep Girls sleep longer than boys Sleep

41 Slide 41 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sleep in Adolescence Many adolescents are not getting enough sleep; average 9½ hours when available –Like to stay up late, sleep late in mornings –Try to make up sleep debt on weekends Biological clocks shift –Melatonin production — about an hour later each day delays sleepiness at night Sleep

42 Slide 42 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Sleep in Adolescence Sleep deprivation and school performance – Inattentive – Poor test performance – Discipline problems – Reports of illness and depression – Low self-esteem Sleep

43 Slide 43 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Adulthood and Aging Many adults don’t get enough sleep Middle age may bring sleep problems – Wakeful periods at night, less deep sleep Many older adults go to bed earlier at night and wake up earlier in the morning – Afternoon naps Insomnia increases in late adulthood Sleep

44 Slide 44 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Expectancy and Life Span Life span — upper boundary of life, maximum number of years an individual can live Life expectancy — number of years that an average person born in a particular year will probably live Longevity

45 Slide 45 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Life Expectancy Females average 80 years, 74 years for males Gender differences influenced by biological factors – extra X for females Men more likely to die from U.S. leading causes of death Associated with lifestyle and workplace stress Longevity

46 Slide 46 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Centenarians Numbers increasing; affected by – Genes, heredity, and family history – Women who have never married – Ability to cope successfully with stress – Education, health, and lifestyle – Individual personality Highest ratio in Okinawa Longevity

47 Slide 47 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Longevity Fig Risks of Dying from Cancer in Okinawa, Japan, and the United States

48 Slide 48 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Biological Theories of Aging Cellular Clock Theory Free-Radical Theory Mitochondrial Theory Maximum times that human cells can divide is about 75 to 80 People age because their cells’ metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules (free radicals) Aging caused by decay of mitochondria Hormonal Stress Theory Aging in body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase likelihood of disease Longevity

49 Slide 49 © 2007 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. The End 3


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