Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Anatomy of muscles The unit of contraction. Vocabulary of muscle fiber Periosteum Tendon Deep fascia (epimysium) Skeletal muscle Perimysium Endomysium.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Anatomy of muscles The unit of contraction. Vocabulary of muscle fiber Periosteum Tendon Deep fascia (epimysium) Skeletal muscle Perimysium Endomysium."— Presentation transcript:

1 Anatomy of muscles The unit of contraction

2 Vocabulary of muscle fiber Periosteum Tendon Deep fascia (epimysium) Skeletal muscle Perimysium Endomysium Sarcoplasm Myofibril Aponeurosis

3 Vocabulary of muscle Rectus Transverse Oblique Maximus Medius Minimus Longus Brevis Latissimus Longissimus Magnus Major Minor Deltoid- Serratus- Rhomboid- Quadratus- Flexor/Extensor Abductor/adductor Insertion/Origin

4 Info on muscle fibers Myofibrils: HHundreds to thousands of myofibril (1/100 the diameter of a hair) are in a single sarcoplasm. Myofilament: CContains the apparatus that contracts the muscle cell MMyosin and Actin Myosin: TThick filaments 16 nm in diameter (1/10,000 the diameter of hair) Actin: TThin filaments 6nm in diameter

5 Interior structure of muscle fiber Sarcoplasm:  The cytoplasm of muscle fiber  Contains contractile components Protein filaments Glycogen Fat particle Enzymes Specialized organelles as mitochondria (produces enzymes for metabolic conversion of food to energy)

6 Types of muscle Smooth:  Intestines, arteries, veins Cardiac:  Heart Striated:  Skeletal muscle

7 Fiber types Slow Twitch (Type I):  Resist fatigue  Large number of mitochondria  High aerobic enzyme activity Fast Twitch (Type II):  Type IIa: Oxidative glycolytic, some of the fatique resistance properties More mitochondria, greater aerobic enzyme activity  Type IIb: Fast glycolytic Fatigues rapidly Few mitochondria and low aerobic enzyme activity

8 Types of muscle action Concentric muscle action  Muscle shortens with a contraction Eccentric muscle action  Muscle lengthens with a contraction Sometimes refers to a negative lift.

9 Agonist vs antagonist Agonist muscles:  Muscle directly engaged in contraction as related to muscles that relax at the same time Antagonist muscles:  Muscle that counteract the action of the agonist muscles Example:  Contraction of the bicep= agonist  Counteract of the bicep=triceps=antagonist

10 Origin and insertions of muscles Ankle: Anterior compartment  Tibialis anterior O=lateral tibial condyle and proximal 2/3 of tiba I= first cuneiform and 1 st metatarsal A=dorsiflex and inversion  Extensor hallucis longus O=middle fibula anterior I= distal phalanx of great toe A= extends great toe and dorsiflex/inversion

11 Origin and insertions of muscles Ankle: Anterior compartment  Extensor digitorum longus O= lateral condyle of tibia I= 2 nd -5 th phalanges A= extends toes and dorsiflex/eversion  Peroneus tertius O= distal 1/3 rd of fibula I= 5 th metatarsal A= dorsiflex/eversion

12 Origin and insertions of muscles Ankle: Lateral compartment  Peroneus longus O= proximal 2/3 rd of fibula I= 1 st metatarsal and medial cuneiform A= plantarflexion/eversion  Peroneus brevis O= distal 2/3 rd of fibula I= 5 th metatarsal A= plantarflexion/eversion

13 Origin and insertions of muscles Ankle: Posterior compartment  Gastrocnemius O= med/lat. Femoral condyles I= calcaneus with achilles tendon A= flexes lower leg and plantarflexion  Soleus O= Proximal 1/3 rd of fibula and middle 1/3 rd of tibia I= calcaneus with achilles tendon A= plantarflexion of foot

14 Origin and insertions of muscles Ankle: Posterior compartment Popliteus  O= lateral femoral condyle  I= proximal tibia  A= flexes leg Flexor hallucis longus  O= lower 2/3 rd of fibula  I= great toe  A= flexes great toe/plantarflexion/inversion Flexor digitorum longus  O= posterior tibia  I= 2 nd -5 th toes  A= flexes toes/plantarflexion/inversion Tibialis posterior  O= posterior tibia/fibula  I= navicula/cuneiforms/cuboid/2 nd -4 th metatarsal  A=plantarflexion/inversion

15 Origin and insertions of muscles Knee- flexion Biceps femoris  O= Ischial tuberosity  I= head of fibula  A= knee flexion and some hip extension Semitendinosus/semimembranosus  O= ischial tuberosity  I= proximal posterior medial tibial condyle  A= knee flexion and some hip extension

16 Origin and insertions of muscles Knee- extension/  Rectus femoris-hip flexion  O= Anterior inferior spine of ilium  I= base of patella Vastus intermedius  O= anterior proximal 2/3 of femur  I= base of patella Vastus medialis  O= medial proximal femur  I= medial border of patella Vastus lateralis  O= Greater trochanter  I= lateral border of patella

17 Origin and insertions of muscles gluteal region Psoas major/minor  O= Transvers processes lumbar vertebrae  I= lesser trochanter of femur  A= flexes hip Gluteus maximus  O=ilium/sacrum/coccyx  I= Gluteal tuberosity of femur  A= extends and external rotates hip Sartorius  O= Anterior superior spine of ilium  I= anteromedial surface of tibial shaft next to tibial tuberosity  A= hip flexion, abduction and lateral rotation with knee flexion

18 Origin and insertions of muscles gluteal region Gluteus Medius  O= ilium  I= greater trochanter  A= abducts and internal rotates hip Gluteus minimus  O= ilium  I=greater trochanter  A= abducts and internal rotates hip Piriformis  O=anterior surface of sacrum  I= greater trochanter  A= external rotation of hip

19 Origin and insertions of muscles thigh region Adductor Magnus  O: pubis  I: medial femur  A: adducts the hip Adductor Longus  O: pubis  I: medial femur  A: adducts the hip Adductor Brevis  O: pubis  I: medial femur proximal 1/3  A: adducts the hip Pectineus  O: pubis  I: inferior to lesser trochanter  A: adducts the hip Gracilis  O: pubis  I: medial femoral condyle  A: adducts the hip

20 Origin and insertions of muscles shoulder region Serratus anterior  O= outer surfaces of 8-9 ribs  I= superior angle and medial border of scapula  A= scapular abduction and upward rotation Trapezius  O= occiptal protuberance,spinous process of 7 th cervical and T1-12 vertebrae  I= acromion process, clavicle, spine of scapula  A= shoulder adduction and elevation Levator scapula  O= C1-4 vertebrae  I= superior angle of scapula  A= elevation of scapula

21 Origin and insertions of muscles shoulder region Rhomboid major/minor  O= spinous process of C7-T5  I= medial border of scapula  A= scapula protraction Latissimus dorsi  O= T6-L5 and some of sacrum  I= posterior medial portion of humerus  A= shoulder adduction and extension

22 Origin and insertions of muscles shoulder region Supraspinatus  O= supraspinatus fossa  I= greater tubercle of humerus-lateral surface  A= initiates abduction Infraspinatus  O= infraspinatus fossa  I= posterior surface of greater tubercle of humerus  A= external rotation Teres Minor  O= lateral border of scapula  I= posterior surface of greater tubercle of humerus  A= external rotation

23 Origin and insertions of muscles shoulder region Subscapularis  O= subscapularis fossa  I= anterior surface of humerus lesser tubercle  A= internal rotation and some adduction Teres Major  O= inferior angle of scapula  I= anterior surface of humerus lesser tubercle  A= internal rotation and some adduction Pectoralis Major  O= sternum and some of clavicle  I= greater tubercle of humerus  A= horizontal adduction

24 Origin and insertions of muscles shoulder region Deltoid  O=distal clavicle, acromion process, spine of scapula  I= deltoid protuberance  A= shoulder abduction Biceps brachii  O= short head=coracoid process, long head posterior glenoid fossa  I= proximal radius  A= elbow flexion Tricep brachii  O= superior lateral border of scapula and proximal posterior of humerus  I= olecranon  A= elbow extension

25 Origin and insertions of muscles wrist and forearm Flexor carpi radialis  O= medial epicondyle  I= base of 2 nd and 3 rd metacarpal  A= flexes the wrist Flexor carpi ulnaris  O= medial epicondyle  I= pisiform/hamate/5 th metacarpal  A= flexes wrist

26 Origin and insertions of muscles wrist and forearm Extensor Carpi radialis  O= lateral epicondyle  I= base of 3 rd metacarpal  A= extends the wrist Extensor Carpi unlaris  O= lateral epicondyle  I= base of 5 th metacarpal  A= extends the wrist Palmaris Longus  O= medial epicondyle  I= palmar aponeurosis in palm  A= flexes wrist

27 Origin and insertions of muscles wrist and forearm Flexor digitorum superficialis/profundus  O=medial epicondyle  I= superficialis: middle phalanx  profundus: distal phalanx  A= flexes phanlanges and some wrist Extensor digitorum communis/digiti minimi  O=later epicondyle and digiti attaching to communis  I= dorsal surface of 2 nd -5 th phalanges/digiti to 5 th only  A= extends phalanges and digiti to 5 th only Extensor indicis  O= ulna  I= tendon of extensor digitorum communis to the index finger  A= extends 2 nd phalange

28 Origin and insertions of muscles thumb Flexor pollicis longus  O= radius  I= distal phalanx of thumb  A= flexes thumb Extensor pollicis longus/brevis  O= ulna: longus & radius: brevis  I= distal phalanx of thumb: longus base of 1 st phalanx of thumb: brevis  A= extends thumb Abductor pollicis longus  O= radius/ulna  I= base of 1 st metacarpal  A= abducts thumb


Download ppt "Anatomy of muscles The unit of contraction. Vocabulary of muscle fiber Periosteum Tendon Deep fascia (epimysium) Skeletal muscle Perimysium Endomysium."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google