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Introduction to Metabolism 1 By Amr S. Moustafa, M.D.; Ph.D. Assistant Prof. & Consultant, Medical Biochemistry Dept. College of Medicine, KSU

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Metabolism 1 By Amr S. Moustafa, M.D.; Ph.D. Assistant Prof. & Consultant, Medical Biochemistry Dept. College of Medicine, KSU"— Presentation transcript:

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2 Introduction to Metabolism 1 By Amr S. Moustafa, M.D.; Ph.D. Assistant Prof. & Consultant, Medical Biochemistry Dept. College of Medicine, KSU

3 General Objectives  Metabolic pathways for carbohydrates  Hormonal control & enzyme regulation  Introduction to Metabolism  Mitochondria: ATP production & ETC

4 Specific Objectives  Biochemical reaction and Δ G  E-Coupled reactions using ATP  Mitochondria: Structure  Electron Transport Chain (ETC)  Oxidative phosphorylation  Mitochondria: Clinical correlations

5 Free Energy Change Δ G Exergonic Spontaneous E-Loss Endergonic Not spontaneous E-Gain

6 Coupled Reactions

7 Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Δ Gº -7.3 kcal/mol/bond

8 Oxidative Phosphorylation for ATP Production E-rich compounds e.g., Oxidation E-rich reduced coenzymes ETC

9 Mitochondria

10 Electron Transport Chain Non-protein mobile carrier Electron transport and ATP synthesis are tightly coupled processes

11 Electron Transfer Hydride ions (:H - ) to NAD + Hydrogen atom (.H) to FMN, Co-Q and FAD Electrons (.E - ) to cytochromes

12 NAD + / NADH

13 Oxidation/Reduction Oxidation: Loss of hydrogen Loss of electrons Reduction: Gain of hydrogen Gain of electrons

14 Redox Pair

15 Redox Pair and Electron Flow Electron transfer down ETC is energetically favored

16 P:O Ratio  ATP made / O atom reduced  P:O for NADH 3:1  P:O for FADH 2 2:1  The remaining of E during electron transport used for Ca transport released as heat

17 Chemiosmotic Hypothesis

18 Electron transport coupled to ADP phosphorylation (ATP synthesis) Common intermediate: Proton pump Proton pump: Electrical & pH gradients Proton re-entry: Via F ° channel Conformational changes & ATP synthesis Dissipating electrical & pH gradients

19 Uncoupling Proteins (UCPs)

20 UCP1 : Thermogenin Abundant in brown adipose tissue Cold or birth leads to Fatty acid oxidation and heat production

21 Mitochondria: Clinical Correlations Inherited defects in oxidative phosphorylation: 13 mtpolypeptides encoded by mtDNA 107 mtpolypeptides encoded by nuclear DNA mtDNA: maternally inherited 10x prone to mutations Mitochondrial myopathies Mitochondria and apoptosis: Cytochrome c (cytosol) & proapoptotic caspases


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