Presentation on theme: "AP Biology Review Session 2. Concept Check The cell is sometimes described as a protein factory. Using the cell-as- factory analogy, which of the following."— Presentation transcript:
AP Biology Review Session 2
Concept Check The cell is sometimes described as a protein factory. Using the cell-as- factory analogy, which of the following accurately describes the functions of the endomembrane system? 1)The ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum are analogous to a production line in a factory. 2)The golgi apparatus is analogous to the packaging and shipping department. 3)The nucleus is analogous to management offices. 4)All of the above.
Concept Check The three domains of life described by biologists today include the bacteria, the archaea and the eukarya (all other forms of life). What is the principle difference between the eukarya or eukaryotes and the prokaryotes (archaea and bacteria)? The prokaryotes do not have a plasma membrane surrounding the cell. The prokaryotes use RNA and not DNA to pass on the genetic message. The eukaryotes have the interior of the cell divided by internal membranes into specialized compartments. The eukaryotes engage in cellular metabolism while the prokaryotes do not.
Chapter 4 $100 Question A _________ is an example of a unicellular organism. a. cat b. pine tree c. fish d. protist ANSWER
Chapter 4 $200 Question Bacterial cells are prokaryotic. Unlike a typical eukaryotic cell, they __________. a. lack a nucleus b. have a smaller nucleus c. lack a plasma membrane d. Have more internal membranous compartments ANSWER
Chapter 4 $300 Question __________ are the major lipids of plasma membranes. a. Triglycerides b. Phospholipids c. Fatty acids d. Steroids ANSWER
Chapter 4 $400 Question Which of these pairs of organelles are responsible for energy conversion? a. mitochondrion and chloroplast b. vacuole and ribosome c. centriole and lysosome d. Golgi apparatus and smooth endoplasmic reticulum ANSWER
Chapter 4 $500 Question Information is transferred from the cell nucleus to ribosomes via the molecule __________. a. RNA b. rER c. sER d. DNA ANSWER
Concept Check This diagram represents osmosis of water across a semipermeable membrane. The U- tube on the right shows the results of the osmosis. What could you do to level the solutions in the two sides of the right hand U-tube? Add more water to the left hand side. Add more water to the right hand side. Add more solute to the left hand side. Add more solute to the right hand side.
Concept Check Membranes organize cell activities. The proteins imbedded in the membranes are essential to their function. These membrane proteins have properties that allow them to “float” in the membrane. Which of the following describe those properties? The surface region of the protein in the interior of the membrane is mostly hydrophobic. The surface region of the protein in the interior of the membrane is mostly hydrophillic. The surface region exposed to the outer environment is hydrophobic. The surface region exposed to the interior environment is hydrophobic.
Concept Check Enzymes catalyze the many reactions in a cell. There are hundreds of different enzymes in a cell—each with a unique three- dimensional shape. Why do cells have so many different enzymes? Each enzyme molecule can only be used once. The shape of enzyme’s active site generally fits a specific substrate. The substrate molecules react with enzymes to create new enzymes. Enzymes are randomly produced. With thousands of different shapes—one is likely to work.
Chapter 5 $100 Question Which of the following is a measure of disorder? a. entropy b. kinetic energy c. potential energy d. respiration ANSWER
Chapter 5 $200 Question A(n) _____________ is the amount of energy that raises the temperature of 1 g of water by 1° C. a. calorie b. ATP c. entropy d. enzyme ANSWER
Chapter 5 $300 Question Molecules of food and gasoline contain a special form of potential energy called __________ energy, due to the arrangement of their atoms. a. kinetic b. ionic c. covalent d. chemical ANSWER
Chapter 5 $400 Question Enzymes increase the rate of a reaction by ________. a. decreasing activation energy b. changing the pH c. increasing the temperature of the substances d. contributing water to the reaction ANSWER
Chapter 5 $500 Question Osmosis is _____________. a. the diffusion of nonpolar materials b. the diffusion of water across a semi-permeable membrane c. the diffusion of a solute d. active transport ANSWER
Diffusion Requires no energy Passive transport Higher solute concentration Facilitated diffusion Osmosis Higher water concentration Higher solute concentration Requires energy Active transport Solute Water Lower solute concentration Lower water concentration Lower solute concentration
ATP cycle Energy from exergonic reactions Energy for endergonic reactions
Molecules cross cell membranes passive transport by may be moving down moving against requires uses diffusion of polar molecules and ions uses of (a) (c) (d) (b) (e)
Concept Check Some prokaryotic and all eukaryotic cells use oxygen to harvest energy from food molecules? In what form is that energy available to power cell work? Heat and light. Glucose molecules. Fat molecules. ATP molecules.
Fat molecules store 9 Kcal per gram. There are about 454 grams in a pound of fat so that means that one pound of fat stores about 4,000 Kcal of energy. Based on the chart of energy consumption, which of the following would “burn off” a pound of fat, assuming your normal activities consumed calories equal to the rate of your calorie intake? Running 7 miles Swimming 2 miles Walking 27 miles Running about 40 miles Concept Check
The figure above represents an overview of the different processes of cellular respiration. Which of the following correctly identifies the different processes? 1. Glycolysis; 2. Electron transport chain; 3. Krebs cycle 1. Glycolysis; 2. Krebs cycle; 3. Electron transport chain 1. Krebs cycle; 2. Electron transport chain; 3. Glycolysis 1. Electron transport chain; 2. Glycolysis; 3. Krebs cycle
Concept Check The electron transport chain is too deeply embedded in the mitochondria. The electron transport chain only receives electrons carried by reduced electron carrier molecules such as NADH. The electron transport chain only receives electrons carried by oxidized electron carrier molecules such as NAD+. The electron transport chain does not produce ATP. The figure above represents an overview of the different entry pathways to cellular respiration when different macromolecules are digested for energy production. Why are none of the digestive products entering the electron transport chain, directly?
Chapter 6 $100 Question The molecule _________ is the main source of energy used to drive chemical reactions in cells. a. lactic acid b. ATP c. carbon dioxide d. DNA ANSWER
Chapter 6 $200 Question ____________ is the anaerobic harvest of food energy. a. Electron transport b. Cellular respiration c. Photosynthesis d. Fermentation ANSWER
Chapter 6 $300 Question Where in the cell does glycolysis occur? a. outside the mitochondria b. in the endoplasmic reticulum c. in the fluid of the mitochondria d. on the outer mitochondrial membrane ANSWER
Chapter 6 $400 Question The final electron acceptor of aerobic respiration is ________. a. ATP b. oxygen c. carbon dioxide d. lactic acid ANSWER
Chapter 6 $500 Question What must pyruvic acid be converted to before it can enter the citric acid cycle? a. acetyl CoA b. lactic acid c. ethyl alcohol d. NADH ANSWER
Cells, tissues, organisms Proteins Fats Carbohydrates Glucose ATP needed to drive biosynthesis CITRIC ACID CYCLE Acetyl CoA GLUCOSE SYNTHESIS Pyruvate Amino acids Glycerol Sugars Fatty acids Amino groups G3P ATP
Cytoplasm Glucose Oxidative phosphorylation (Electron Transport and Chemiosmosis) Citric acid cycle Glycolysis Pyruvate CO 2 ATP CO 2 ATP NADH and FADH 2 Mitochondrion NADH ATP
(a) glucose and organic fuels has three stages produce some generates Cellular respiration uses H + diffuse through ATP synthase by process called chemiosmosis energy for cellular work uses (b) (d) (c) (f) (e) oxidizes C 6 H 12 O 6 to pull electrons down to uses pumps H + to create H + gradient produces many
Concept Check This is the summary equation for the process of photosynthesis. This reaction is endergonic. is exergonic. has an equal amount of energy in the reactants and the products. is catabolic.
Concept Check Both cellular respiration and photosynthesis rely on electron transport chains embedded in membranes to produce ATP molecules. Which of the following correctly describes the difference between the two types of electron transport chains? In cellular respiration the electron source is water and the final electron destination is oxygen. In cellular respiration the electron source is the hydrogens in energy rich food and the final electron destination is oxygen. In photosynthesis the electron source is water and the final destination is oxygen. Both 2 and 3.
Concept Check When a photon of the correct energy is absorbed by a photosystem, an electron is energized and transferred to a primary electron acceptor. This creates an electron “hole”. How is the missing electron replaced? Electrons removed from glucose replace the missing electrons. Electrons from hydrogen made available by splitting water replace the missing electrons. 1)The replacement electrons come from NADPH. 2)The electrons come from ATP.
Concept Check Imagine that you have planted bean seedlings (C 3 ) and corn seedlings (C 4 ) in an artificial soil and sealed them in an aquarium. The aquarium has plenty of light, nutrients and water but a given volume of air. Based on your knowledge of photorespiration which of the following are most likely? Both kinds of plants should do equally well. As the plants photosynthesize the carbon dioxide levels will fall giving the C 3 plants the advantage. As the plants photosynthesize the carbon dioxide levels will fall giving the C 4 plants the advantage. The results are unpredictable. C 3 plant, low CO 2 C 4 plant, low CO 2
Chapter 7 $100 Question Which of the following is an autotroph? a. mushroom b. honeybee c. mountain lion d. pine tree ANSWER
Chapter 7 $200 Question In which organelle does photosynthesis occur? a. chloroplast b. mitochondrion c. nucleus d. smooth endoplasmic reticulum ANSWER
Chapter 7 $300 Question __________ is the source of the oxygen gas released by a photosystem. a. NADPH b. Water c. Carbon dioxide d. Chlorophyll a ANSWER
Chapter 7 $400 Question The light reactions of photosynthesis take place in the________. a. stroma b. thylakoid membrane c. cytosol d. cristae ANSWER
Chapter 7 $500 Question _________, produced during the Calvin cycle, is the raw material plants use to make necessary organic molecules. a. Glucose b. Carbon dioxide c. Sucrose d. G3P ANSWER
H2OH2O ADP P Light reactions Light Chloroplast NADPH ATP O2O2 Calvin cycle Sugar CO 2 NADP + Stroma Thylakoid membranes
Mitochondrion structure Intermembrane space Membrane Matrix a. H+H+ Chloroplast structure b. c. d. e.
Photosynthesis includes both converts in which (b) (c) light-excited electrons of chlorophyll CO 2 is fixed to RuBP and then (h) reduce NADP + to using to produce sugar (G3P) (f) chemiosmosis (e) (g) by producing are passed down (d) and to chemical energy H 2 O is split (a)