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BY MRS. LEONE Comparing Microbes Timed slideshow (28 min) – Press F5 to play. W to pause/resume.

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Presentation on theme: "BY MRS. LEONE Comparing Microbes Timed slideshow (28 min) – Press F5 to play. W to pause/resume."— Presentation transcript:

1 BY MRS. LEONE Comparing Microbes Timed slideshow (28 min) – Press F5 to play. W to pause/resume

2 Observe & Analyze the Work How many microbes will we compare? Why are some of the answers provided? How are the microbes organized?

3 Complete Your Microbes Matrix Fill in as many blanks in each row as you can. The Six Kingdoms: Select one for each microbe. Archaea, Bacteria, Protista, Plantae, Animalia, Fungi Typical size: 1000 nm (nanometer) / μm (micron) 1000 μm / mm (millimeter) Structure & shape: How many cells are there? What do they look like?

4 Complete Your Microbes Matrix Keep going! External environment: Most microbes are found in an aquatic environment. Internal environment: What does everything in the cell float in?

5 Complete Your Microbes Matrix You’re doing great! Energy source: Which trophic system does the microbe use? Preferred food: Bigger microbes eat smaller microbes.Digestion: How does food get into the cell? Let me give you some choices…

6 Complete Your Microbes Matrix Digestion Methods: Photosynthesis – Food is made right inside the cell in chloroplasts! Phagocytosis – fay-djoh-sy-TOE-sis The cell membrane grabs the food particle and pulls it inside the cytoplasm to be dissolved Hyphae – HIGH-fay These tentacles stick into living tissue to suck out food. Oral groove & mouth pore – This is an actual opening in the membrane for eating.

7 Complete Your Microbes Matrix We’ll go over each microbe in a few minutes.Inspiration: Gases diffuse in & out across the cell membrane.Replication: How does the microbe reproduce? mitosis, binary fission = copy DNA and divide meiosis = partial DNA from two parents budding = mini versions grow directly on critter spores = an inactive cell goes to find a new home

8 Complete Your Microbes Matrix Do the best you can.Excretion: How do the cells get rid of waste materials? Excretion Methods: exocytosis = moving the particle in a vacuole toward the cell membrane and out contractile vacuole = pumping water out by squeezing a vacuole anal pore = an actual opening in the cell membrane for getting stuff out of the cell lysosome = the recycling & removal organelle

9 Complete Your Microbes Matrix You are intelligent. Energy storage: Where do the cells keep the energy until needed?Circulation: How does stuff get moved around the cell? cytoplasm = it just floats around in the internal environment hyphae = sucking tubules endoplasmic reticuli= hallways leading from the nucleus to the Golgi and on into the cytoplasm radiating canals = a simple kind of ER

10 Complete Your Microbes Matrix You are doing your best. Cell protection: How is the cell protected? Most cell walls are made of cellulose, but fungi’s are made of chitin, the same stuff found in a beetle’s shell! Genetic material: What kind of genetic material does the microbe have? Genetic protection: What protects the genetic material?

11 Complete Your Microbes Matrix Keep on trucking!Locomotion: How does the critter move?Speed: The average human can walk 264 feet in a minute. The average microbe? Waaaay less…Sensory: What can the critter detect? What special organelles help with this function?

12 Okay. Now let’s check each microbe. Ready?

13 Virus Kingdom – none Typical size – nm Structure & shape – parasitic particle, many shapes External environment – water or land Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – none Preferred food – none Digestion – none Inspiration – none Replication – hijacks host cell

14 Virus Excretion – none Energy storage – none Circulation – none Cell protection – envelope (on some) Genetic material – DNA or RNA Genetic protection – capsid Locomotion – none Speed – none Sensory – can sense host page 2

15 Bacterium Kingdom – Bacteria Typical size – 200 nm – 2 μm Structure & shape – unicellular; sphere, spiral or rod External environment – water (but gliders need a solid surface to glide on) Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – some are autotrophs, some are heterotrophs Preferred food – heterotrophic ones often prefer decaying matter Digestion – phagocytosis Inspiration – diffusion Replication – binary fission

16 Bacterium Excretion – exocytosis Energy storage – none Circulation – cytoplasm Cell protection – cell wall (cellulose), cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – none (prokaryote) Locomotion – flagellum or surfactants Speed – rod w/flagella = 200 µm/s spiral = 50 µm/s (7 in/h) gliding = 2 µm/s (¼ in/h) sphere = doesn't move Sensory – can sense prey or light page 2

17 Fungus cell Kingdom – Fungi Typical size – 3-10 µm wide and 50 µm long Structure & shape – cellular component, threadlike External environment – water or land fungus Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – heterotroph Preferred food – decaying matter or living tissue Digestion – phagocytosis, hyphae Inspiration – diffusion Replication – spores (most common), meiosis, budding

18 Fungus cell Excretion – vacuoles Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – hyphae Cell protection – cell wall (chitin), cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – none (grows toward food!) Speed – none Sensory – can sense food page 2

19 Euglena Kingdom – Protista Typical size – 6-18 μm wide and 50 μm long Structure & shape – unicellular External environment – freshwater Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – autotroph by day, and heterotroph by night Preferred food – glucose, or smaller microbes Digestion – photosynthesis in light, phagocytosis in darkness Inspiration – diffusion Replication – mitosis

20 Euglena Excretion – contractile vacuole Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – ER, vesicles Cell protection – cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – flagellum Speed – 3.5 microns/second (about ½ inch/hr) Sensory – eyespot organelle detects light page 2

21 Animal cell Kingdom – Animalia Typical size – µm wide Structure & shape – cellular component External environment – water or land animal Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – heterotrophic Preferred food – glucose Digestion – phagocytosis Inspiration – diffusion Replication – mitosis

22 Animal cell Excretion – vacuoles Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – ER, vesicles Cell protection – cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – none Speed – none Sensory – specialized cells can sense light, touch, sound, taste, or smell page 2

23 Plant cell Kingdom – Plantae Typical size – µm wide Structure & shape – cellular component External environment – water or land plant Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – autotrophic Preferred food – glucose Digestion – photosynthesis Inspiration – diffusion Replication – mitosis

24 Plant cell Excretion – vacuoles Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – ER, vesicles Cell protection – cell wall (cellulose), cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – none (grows toward light!) Speed – none Sensory – specialized cells can sense light page 2

25 Paramecium Kingdom – Protista (protozoan) Typical size – µm wide, µm long Structure & shape – unicellular External environment – freshwater Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – heterotroph Preferred food – bacteria, yeasts, algae (smaller microbes) Digestion – oral groove, mouth pore Inspiration – diffusion Replication – mitosis

26 Paramecium Excretion – contractile vacuole Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – radiating canals Cell protection – pellicle (cell membrane) Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – cilia (moves in a spiral motion, head first) Speed – 420 microns/second (about 5 feet/hour) Sensory – can sense light page 2

27 Amoeba Kingdom – Protista (protozoan) Typical size – µm Structure & shape – unicellular, no uniform shape External environment – freshwater or soil Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source –heterotroph Preferred food – plankton, diatoms (smaller microbes) Digestion – phagocytosis Inspiration – diffusion Replication – mitosis

28 Amoeba Excretion – contractile vacuole Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – ER, vesicles Cell protection –cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – pseudopods Speed – 3 microns/sec (about 0.43 in/hour) Sensory – can sense prey page 2

29 Volvox Kingdom – Protista (plant-like) Typical size – µm Structure & shape – unicellular, spherical cells form a hollow, spherical colony held together by mucilage (a sticky gel) External environment – freshwater that is rich in nitrates (well fertilized) Internal environment – cytoplasm Energy source – autotroph Preferred food – glucose Digestion – photosynthesis Inspiration – diffusion Replication – daughter colonies (the darker spots)

30 Volvox Excretion – exocytosis Energy storage – mitochondria Circulation – ER, vesicles Cell protection –cell membrane Genetic material – DNA and RNA Genetic protection – nucleus (eukaryote) Locomotion – two flagella per cell, the colony rotates Speed – the colony slowly tumbles Sensory – eyespot on specialized members can detect light; colonies can also develop and detect gender! page 2

31 Summarize the Information How do protista compare to modern animals, plants and fungi? What is the effect of size on speed? What is the most common way microbes eat? Which of these microbes is the coolest?

32 Any questions?


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