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Cells!! Yay! We’re so excited!! I always wanted to learn about cells and stuff…really Mr. Mason…I’m not bored….this is awesome…just like cheese, which.

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Presentation on theme: "Cells!! Yay! We’re so excited!! I always wanted to learn about cells and stuff…really Mr. Mason…I’m not bored….this is awesome…just like cheese, which."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cells!! Yay! We’re so excited!! I always wanted to learn about cells and stuff…really Mr. Mason…I’m not bored….this is awesome…just like cheese, which is also awesome…but not quite as awesome as cells. Well, except for melted cheese…and that fancy cheese at Costco…that stuff is pretty awesome. Wait…what was I saying??? Oh yeah…cells! Woohoo!

2 Cell Theory Life consists of cells All cells are derived from pre-existing cells

3 Cell Theory Life consists of cells All cells are derived from pre-existing cells – Cells are the smallest units of matter that exhibit all five characteristics of life

4 Sizes of Cells Most bacteria: 1-10 μm Plant/animal cells: 10-100 μm Can see with unaided eye down to 0.2mm (200 μm) Largest cell? Smallest cell?

5 Sizes of Cells Most bacteria: 1-10 μm Plant/animal cells: 10-100 μm Can see with unaided eye down to 0.2mm (200 μm) Largest cell?egg Smallest cell?Sperm Relative size of cells

6 Eukaryotic Cells Defined by the presence of membrane- bound organelles (little organs). Prokaryotes (bacteria) have an organelle (ribosome), but they are not membrane-bound

7 Cell Membrane = phospholipid bilayer (or if you really want to sound smart, you can call it the Fluid Mosaic Membrane…or FMM )

8 Functions of phospholipid bilayer Protection Transportation Chem. reactions Identification/commu nication

9 Organelles that process info: Nucleus and Ribosomes

10 Nucleus Storehouse for genetic code (DNA) Synthesizes RNA and ribosomes

11 Ribosomes The site of protein synthesis Composed of proteins and rRNA (3 types of RNA in cells – mRNA, tRNA, and rRNA…but we’ll get to that during 2 nd semester) Either free (proteins used in cytoplasm) or attached to E.R. (proteins inserted into membrane or used for export)

12 Organelles that process energy Mitochondria and plastids

13 Mitochondria Converts energy from organic compounds (such as glucose) into ATP Have their own DNA (only organelle that has DNA other than the nucleus)

14 Plastids Chloroplasts – convert sunlight into glucose Chromoplasts – give fruits and flowers their color (why?) Leucoplasts – store starch (energy source) Only found in plants

15 The endomembrane system Endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, and lysosomes

16 Endoplasmic Reticulum Serves as an intracellular highway (carries materials around the cell) Rough ER – covered in ribosomes, produces phospholipids and proteins – especially for export Smooth ER – produces lipids (steroids, hormones, etc.), aides in cell detox, and stores necessary ions

17 Golgi Apparatus Processing, packaging, and secreting organelle Modifies proteins for export, packages these (and other molecules) in vesicles (basically little cellular shipping containers)

18 Lysosome The dumpster of the cell Contains hydrolytic enzymes that digest organic molecules

19 Plant Cells – How are they unique? Plants have: – Plastids – Vacuoles: large storage organelle – Cell wall covering phospholipid bilayer


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