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Cytology Study Guide Chapter 7.

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Presentation on theme: "Cytology Study Guide Chapter 7."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cytology Study Guide Chapter 7

2 1. Identify at least 3 characteristics of cells.
Microscopic Make up all living things All cells arise from existing cells Basic unit of function and structure for organisms. Can be prokaryotic or eukaryotic.

3 2. Explain why cells must be small in size.
Cells must keep a large surface area to volume ratio. If a cell gets too large, it might not be able to transport enough materials into/out of the cell to meet the cell’s needs.

4 3. Describe what surface area is and why it is an important factor in determining cell size.
Surface area is the area covered by the cell membrane. It must be large enough to meet the needs of the cell efficiently.

5 4. What scientist is credited with first discovering cells?
Robert Hooke

6 5. Identify the scientists credited with developing the cell theory.
Schleiden and Schwann

7 6. What are the 3 components of the cell theory?
All living things are made up of one or more cells. Cells are the basic units of structure and function in organisms. ALL cells arise from existing cells.

8 7. Explain how prokaryotes and eukaryotes differ.
*** Eukaryotes have a membrane-bound nucleus, and prokaryotes do not! Prokaryotes are thought to have preceded (evolved before) eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are more simple, eukaryotes more complex. Prokaryotes are smaller, eukaryotes are bigger.

9 8. Give an example of a prokaryotic cell.

10 9. Give an example of a eukaryotic cell.
Animal cells or plant cells

11 10. Identify at least 3 similarities between plant and animal cells.
Both are eukaryotic. Both have cell membranes, nucleus, mitochondria, ribosomes, ER, Golgi bodies, etc.

12 11. Identify at least 3 differences between plant and animal cells.
Plant cells have chloroplasts, animal cells don’t. Plant cells have a central vacuole, animal cells have smaller vacuoles throughout. Plant cells have a cell wall, animal cells don’t. Animal cells have lysosomes, plant cells don’t.

13 12. Describe the structure and function of the cell membrane.
Phospholid bilayer, containing proteins and carbohydrates as well. Its role is to control what enters and leaves the cell.

14 13. What is the role of the nucleus within the cell?
Controls the cells activities Stores DNA

15 14. What is cytoplasm? Fluid-like substance between the cell membrane and nucleus, in which the organelles exist.

16 15. All eukaryotes have a true membrane-bound nucleus.

17 16. Identify 3 components of the nucleus.
Nuclear membrane Nucleoplasm Nucleolus

18 17. What are organelles? Membrane-bound structures within eukaryotes that carry out specific activities for the cell.

19 18. Describe the Fluid Mosiac Model of the cell membrane.
Cell membrane is flexible and made up of different types of molecules all working together.

20 19. Identify 3 types of molecules that make up the cell membrane.
Phospholipids Proteins Carbohydrates

21 20. What is the organelle that produces vesicles filled with proteins?
Endoplasmic reticulum

22 21. Explain the difference between protein pumps and channels in the cell membrane.
Pumps require cell’s energy Channels are passive, no energy required

23 22. What is the role/importance of the cell wall in a plant cell?
Structure and support of the cell

24 23. The cell wall must be porous for water, nutrients, and gases to pass easily through.

25 24. What type of molecule found in the nucleus contains genetic information?

26 25. Describe the appearance and role of the Golgi apparatus.
Role: collect, modify, package, and ship materials throughout cell

27 26. Describe the appearance and role of the mitochondria in the cell.
Role: breaks down organic compounds to produce ATP (energy)

28 27. Describe the role of ribosomes in the cell.
Make proteins.

29 28. Name 2 places in the cell that ribosomes can be found.
Attached to the RER Floating in the cytoplasm

30 29. Explain the role of the rough and smooth ER.
The Rough ER transports proteins made in the ribosomes. Forms vesicles around the proteins. The Smooth ER makes lipids and breaks down toxins.

31 30. What is the difference between the two types of ER?
Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it. Smooth ER does not.

32 31. Which organelle packages proteins for distribution?
Golgi apparatus

33 32. Explain the structure and role of the central vacuole in a plant cell.
Large membrane-bound compartment in which water, waste, and nutrients can be stored in a plant cell.

34 33. What organelle is associated with plant photosynthesis?

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