Presentation on theme: "Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy."— Presentation transcript:
Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy
Cellular Respiration All living things need energy Energy in the form of… Food =chemical energy
Living things get most of the energy they need from glucose. –Autotrophs make glucose using photosynthesis –Heterotrophs get glucose from food they eat
Cellular Respiration is the process of extracting stored energy from glucose and storing it in the high energy bonds of ATP.
What Is ATP? Energy used by all Cells Adenosine Triphosphate Organic molecule containing high- energy Phosphate bonds
Chemical Structure of ATP
What Does ATP Do for You? It supplies YOU with It supplies YOU with ENERGY!
Why ATP? An analogy to money… Glucose in our food is a great source of energy! ($100 bill) However, individual cell processes may only require a small amount of energy ($1 bill)
Analogy: most vending machines do not accept $100 bills! We need a smaller form of “currency” for these processes. ATP is this important cellular “currency” for life. ATP releases more appropriate amounts of energy for the individual cellular processes than does glucose
How Do We Get Energy From ATP? By breaking the high- energy bonds between the last two phosphates in ATP
Results in ADP -Adenosine Diphosphate (only 2 phosphates)
Burning glucose in an experiment Energy released from glucose (as heat and light) 100% Energy released from glucose banked in ATP “Burning” glucose in cellular respiration About 40% Gasoline energy converted to movement Burning gasoline in an auto engine 25% How efficient is cell respiration?
ATP is broken down into ADP + P and then remade again with the help of enzymes in the ATP/ADP cycle
Respiration There are two types of Respiration: Anaerobic Respiration and Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration – without oxygen (referred to as Fermentation) Aerobic Respiration – with oxygen (referred to as Cellular Respiration)
both The First Stage for both types of respiration, is called Glycolysis
Glycolysis glyco means “glucose/sugar”, and lysis means “to split”. Therefore, glycolysis means “to split glucose” C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C
Glycolysis Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside of mitochondria. Needs no oxygen and makes 2 ATP Process in which 1 glucose in broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid 19 C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C
Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation NOT (Fermentation does NOT use oxygen) After Glycolysis, the respiration process stops with 2 ATP made. The pyruvate is then changed into one of several types of molecules, depending on the type of organism doing the fermentation
The 2 most common forms of Anaerobic Respiration are: 1. Alcoholic Fermentation, and 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
Alcoholic Fermentation is carried out by yeast, a kind of fungus.
Alcoholic Fermentation Uses only Glycolysis. Produces ATP when O 2 is not available.
Alcoholic Fermentation C 6 H 12 O 6 2 C 2 H 5 OH + 2 CO 2 (Ethyl Alcohol or Ethanol) As a result of Alcoholic Fermentation, Glucose is converted into 2 molecules of Ethyl Alcohol and 2 Molecules of Carbon Dioxide.
Wine making Grapes are crushed and the sugar they contain is fermented by yeasts to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide usually escapes but if the wine is bottled before fermentation is complete, the carbon dioxide dissolves and escapes as bubble when the bottle is opened This is the case with ‘sparkling’ wines such as Champagne
Brewing In brewing beer, a sugary product (malt) is dissolved out of germinating barley Yeast is added to this solution and fermentation begins, producing alcohol and carbon dioxide Some of the carbon dioxide escapes but the rest dissolves in the beer when it is bottled or put into casks When the bottles or casks are opened, the dissolved CO 2 escapes as bubbles
Baking In baking, yeast is added to a mixture of flour and water, made into the form of a dough The yeast first changes the flour starch into sugar and then ferments the sugar into alcohol and CO 2 The CO 2 forms bubbles in the dough which cause it to expand (‘rise’) When the dough is baked, the heat evaporates the alcohol but makes the trapped bubbles expand giving the bread a ‘light’ texture
Dough rising 36 The yeast is mixed with the dough After 1 hour in a warm place the dough has risen as a result of the carbon dioxide produced by the yeast
The ‘holes’ in the bread are made by the carbon dioxide bubbles. This gives the bread a ‘light’ texture 37
Lactic Acid Fermentation Uses only Glycolysis. Does NOT use O 2 Produces ATP when O 2 is not available.
Lactic Acid Fermentation Performed by bacteria Results in yogurt, pickles, sauerkraut and kimchi
Lactic Acid Fermentation Carried out by human muscle cells under oxygen debt. Lactic Acid is a toxin and causes fatigue, soreness and stiffness in muscles.
Fermentation - Summary Releases 2 ATP from the breakdown of a glucose molecule Provides ATP to a cell even when O 2 is absent.
Aerobic Respiration requires oxygen!
There are three phases to Aerobic Respiration... they are: 1. Glycolysis (same as the glycolysis of anaerobic respiration) 2. Krebs cycle (AKA - Citric Acid cycle) 3. Oxidative Phosphorylation and The Electron Transport Chain
Aerobic Respiration takes place in both the cytoplasm (Glycolysis) and in the mitochondria of a cell
Comparing Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration Aerobic Respiration- –requires a mitochondrion and oxygen –is a three phase process Anaerobic – –does not require oxygen –consists of one phase only-Glycolysis
Cellular Respiration exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) energy (glucose) energy (ATP)(H 2 O). An exergonic, oxygen (O 2 ) requiring process that uses energy extracted from organic molecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H 2 O). C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO2 + 6H 2 O + 36 ATP 44 Glucose oxygen Carbon water dioxideENERGY
Breakdown of Cellular Respiration Three main parts (stages). 1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar) 2. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) 3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) and Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation 45
1. Glycolysis 1. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside of mitochondria. Needs no oxygen and makes 2 ATP Process in which 1 glucose in broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acid 46 C-C-C-C-C-C C-C-C
2. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Occurs in the mitochondria Makes 2 ATP Pyruvic acid is broken down into CO 2 in a series of energy-extracting reactions Citric Acid is created in this cycle thus giving it the nickname Citric Acid Cycle. 47
3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Location: Location: mitochondria Makes 32 ATP Uses high-energy e - from Krebs Cycle to make ATP 48
TOTAL ATP YIELD 49 ATP The ETC makes the most ATP In total cellular respiration makes 36 ATP
50 Krebs Cycle and ETC require oxygen to work!
Cellular Respiration Flowchart Glucose (C 6 H 12 0 6 ) + Oxygen (0 2 ) Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain Carbon Dioxide (CO 2 ) + Water (H 2 O)
Glucose and oxygen react to produce energy for muscle contraction 4 RESPIRATION 5 Carbon dioxide is carried to the lungs by the blood 15 One example of respiration in ourselves 1. Air taken in 1.Food taken in 2. The lungs absorb oxygen from the air 2.The stomach and intestine digest food. One of the products is glucose 3.The blood stream carries glucose and oxygen to the muscles
Respiration - Summary Glucose Glycolysis Krebs cycle Electron transport Fermentation (without oxygen) Alcohol or Lactic Acid