7What Does ATP Do for You?It supplies YOU with ENERGY!7
8Why ATP? An analogy to money… Glucose in our food is a great source of energy! ($100 bill)However, individual cell processes may only require a small amount of energy ($1 bill)
9Analogy: most vending machines do not accept $100 bills Analogy: most vending machines do not accept $100 bills! We need a smaller form of “currency” for these processes.ATP is this important cellular “currency” for life.ATP releases more appropriate amounts of energy for the individual cellular processes than does glucose
10How Do We Get Energy From ATP? By breaking the high- energy bonds between the last two phosphates in ATP10
11Results in ADP -Adenosine Diphosphate (only 2 phosphates)
12How efficient is cell respiration? Energy released from glucose (as heat and light)Energy released from glucose banked in ATPGasoline energy converted to movement100%About 40%25%Burning glucose in an experiment“Burning” glucose in cellular respirationBurning gasoline in an auto engine
16RespirationThere are two types of Respiration: Anaerobic Respiration and Aerobic RespirationAnaerobic Respiration – without oxygen (referred to as Fermentation)Aerobic Respiration – with oxygen (referred to as Cellular Respiration)
17The First Stage for both types of respiration, is called Glycolysis
18Glycolysis glyco means “glucose/sugar”, and lysis means “to split”. Therefore,glycolysis means “to split glucose”C-C-C-C-C-CC-C-C
19Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside of mitochondria. Needs no oxygen and makes 2 ATPProcess in which 1 glucose in broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acidC-C-C-C-C-CC-C-C
20Anaerobic Respiration/Fermentation (Fermentation does NOT use oxygen)After Glycolysis, the respiration process stops with 2 ATP made.The pyruvate is then changed into one of several types of molecules, depending on the type of organism doing the fermentation
21Anaerobic Respiration Anaerobic respiration is involved at some stage in the preparation of these foodstuffs
221. Alcoholic Fermentation, and 2. Lactic Acid Fermentation The 2 most common forms of Anaerobic Respiration are:1. Alcoholic Fermentation, and2. Lactic Acid Fermentation
24Alcoholic Fermentation is carried out by yeast,a kind of fungus.
25Alcoholic Fermentation Uses only Glycolysis.Produces ATP when O2 is not available.
26Alcoholic Fermentation C6H12O6 2 C2H5OH + 2 CO2 (Ethyl Alcohol or Ethanol)As a result of Alcoholic Fermentation, Glucose is converted into 2 molecules of Ethyl Alcohol and 2 Molecules of Carbon Dioxide.
27Wine making Grapes are crushed and the sugar they contain is fermented by yeasts to produce alcohol and carbon dioxide.The carbon dioxide usually escapes but if the wine isbottled before fermentation is complete, the carbon dioxidedissolves and escapes as bubble when the bottle is openedThis is the case with ‘sparkling’ wines such as Champagne
28BrewingIn brewing beer, a sugary product (malt) is dissolved out of germinating barleyYeast is added to this solution and fermentation begins, producing alcohol and carbon dioxideSome of the carbon dioxide escapes but the rest dissolves in the beer when it is bottled or put into casksWhen the bottles or casks are opened, the dissolved CO2 escapes as bubbles
29Baking In baking, yeast is added to a mixture of flour and water, made into the form of a doughThe yeast first changes the flour starch into sugar and thenferments the sugar into alcohol and CO2The CO2 forms bubbles in the dough which cause it toexpand (‘rise’)When the dough is baked, the heat evaporates thealcohol but makes the trapped bubbles expand giving thebread a ‘light’ texture
30Dough rising 36 The yeast is mixed with the dough After 1 hour in a warm place the dough has risen as a result of the carbon dioxideproduced by the yeast
3137The ‘holes’ in thebread are made bythe carbon dioxidebubbles.This gives the bread a ‘light’ texture
32Lactic Acid Fermentation Uses only Glycolysis.Does NOT use O2Produces ATP when O2 is not available.
39There are three phases to Aerobic Respiration ... they are: 1. Glycolysis (same as the glycolysis of anaerobic respiration)2. Krebs cycle (AKA - Citric Acid cycle)3. Oxidative Phosphorylation and The Electron Transport Chain
40Aerobic Respiration takes place in both the cytoplasm (Glycolysis) and in the mitochondria of a cell
42Comparing Aerobic and Anaerobic Respiration requires a mitochondrion and oxygenis a three phase processAnaerobic –does not require oxygenconsists of one phase only-Glycolysis
43MitochondriaOrganelle where cellular respiration takes place.
44Cellular Respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATP An exergonic, oxygen (O2) requiring process that uses energy extracted from organic molecules (glucose) to produce energy (ATP) and water (H2O).C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O + 36 ATPGlucose oxygenCarbon waterdioxideENERGY
45Breakdown of Cellular Respiration Three main parts (stages).1. Glycolysis (splitting of sugar)2. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle)3. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) andOxidative Phosphorylation
461. Glycolysis Occurs in the cytoplasm just outside of mitochondria. Needs no oxygen and makes 2 ATPProcess in which 1 glucose in broken in half, producing 2 molecules of pyruvic acidC-C-C-C-C-CC-C-C
472. Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid Cycle) Occurs in the mitochondriaMakes 2 ATPPyruvic acid is broken down into CO2 in a series of energy-extracting reactionsCitric Acid is created in this cycle thus giving it the nickname Citric Acid Cycle.
483. Electron Transport Chain (ETC) Location: mitochondriaMakes 32 ATPUses high-energy e- from Krebs Cycle to make ATP
49ATP TOTAL ATP YIELD The ETC makes the most ATP In total cellular respiration makes 36 ATPATP
52Cellular Respiration Flowchart Glucose (C6H1206)+Oxygen (02)GlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport ChainCarbonDioxide(CO2)+Water(H2O)
53One example of respiration in ourselves 15One example of respiration in ourselves2. The lungs absorb oxygenfrom the air1. Air taken in1.Food taken in2.The stomach andintestine digest food.One of the productsis glucose3.The blood streamcarries glucose and oxygen to the musclesThe water produced as a waste product of respiration is picked up by the blood stream and may be lost in sweat, water vapour from the lungs or in urineGlucose and oxygen react to produce energy for muscle contraction4 RESPIRATION5 Carbon dioxideis carried to the lungsby the blood