Presentation on theme: "Structure and Function"— Presentation transcript:
1Structure and Function CellsStructure and Function
2Cell Vocabulary Make a flashcard for these terms: Endoplasmic reticulumCellGogi apparatusCell theoryLysosomeCell membraneVacuoleCell wallChloroplastNucleusMitochondriaCytoplasmLipid bilayerProkaryoteSelective permeabilityEukaryoteDiffusionOrganelleActive transportRibosome
3Cell TheoryAll living things are composed of cells.Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.New cells are produced from existing cells.
41600 Cell Shape and Size Press your pen to your paper to create dot. How many cells do you think would fit within that dot????1600Cell video clip—2:30, on flash drive
5Prokaryotic vs Eukaryotic These 2 types of cells differ in complexity and general structure
6Lack internal membrane-bound structures Unicellular organisms Prokaryotic CellsLack internal membrane-bound structuresUnicellular organismsAbout 1/10th the size of a Eukaryotic cell.Example: bacteriaYogurt on a slide?
8Multicellular organisms Membrane bound organelles Mostly animal cells Eukaryotic CellMulticellular organismsMembrane bound organellesMostly animal cellsPresent in all living things, except bacteriaCheek Cells on a Slide
18Nucleus Cells carry coded information in the form of DNA. In some cells DNA floats freely inside the cellIn other cells the DNA is found in a membrane- bound organelle: the NUCLEUSMost functions of a cell are controlled by the nucleus.The NUCLEOLUS is a small structure within the nucleus where ribosomes are assembled.
40Mitochondria, aka “Mighty-Chondria” This organelle processes energy for a cell. It makes ATP by breaking down glucose to Carbon dioxide.(ATP = energy)Involved in cellular respirationControls level of water and other materials in cellRecycles and decomposes proteins, fats, and carbohydratesMitochondria even have their own DNA!
46Cell Coloring! Quiz on Eukaryotic cell at next meeting!! Plant and Animal Cell Coloring sheetColoring Pages
47Movement through the Membrane Cell’s outer boundaryCovers a cell’s surface and acts as a barrier between the inside and outside of the cellAll materials enter and exit through the plasma membraneMembrane is SEMIPERMEABLE: allows only certain materials in and out.Balloon/Perfume Demo
49Movement through a membrane video Clip Insights into cell membranes via dish detergent 3:50
50and Active Transport Cell Homeostasis Cell membranes help organisms maintain homeostasis by controlling what substances may enter or leave cells.There are two main ways of transporting materials into and out of a cell:Passive TransportandActive Transport
51Passive TransportPassive transport occurs when substances cross the cell membrane without any energy by the cellTransport with NO Energy—riding a bike downhillDiffusion and Osmosis are the primary methods of Passive Transport
52Diffusion Simplest form of passive transport Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to lower concentrationThe difference in the concentration of molecules across a distance is called a CONCENTRATION GRADIENTMolecules will move from one area to another until it reaches EQUILIBRIUM, or a balance.Demo—dissolve sugar in water…give each group a beaker and watch it.
54OsmosisOsmosis is the passive (no energy required) transport of water across a cell membraneWater moves from areas of high concentration to low concentrationWhen the concentration of solute molecules outside the cell is lower than inside the cell, the solution outside the cell is HYPOTONIC to the cell. In this situation water diffuses INTO the cell until equilibrium is established.
55When the concentrations are equal=ISOTONIC OsmosisIf the solution outside the cell is higher than the inside the cell the solution is HYPERTONIC and the water diffuses out of the cell to reach equilibriumWhen the concentrations are equal=ISOTONIC
60Crossing the Cell Membrane Graph Activity p.188, whole class
61Active TransportWhen cells need to transport materials from an area of low concentration to high concentration (the opposite of what would naturally happen) it is called ACTIVE TRANSPORT, the cell needs to use ENERGY.Wire Strainer w/ fruit and juice example
62EndocytosisThe process by which cells ingest external fluid, macromolecules, and large particles.
63ExocytosisProcess by which a substance is released from a cell