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Domain II - Organisms. Energy in a Cell  All life on Earth depends on the flow of energy  The main source of energy is the Sun  Energy from the sun.

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Presentation on theme: "Domain II - Organisms. Energy in a Cell  All life on Earth depends on the flow of energy  The main source of energy is the Sun  Energy from the sun."— Presentation transcript:

1 Domain II - Organisms

2 Energy in a Cell  All life on Earth depends on the flow of energy  The main source of energy is the Sun  Energy from the sun is stored in nutrient molecules  The energy is then released by the metabolism of living cells

3 ATP  adenosine triphosphate  Stores and releases the energy in its bonds when the cell needs it The energy is used to make new molecules, to build organelles and membranes, maintain homeostasis, to move (muscle cells), to transmit impulses (nerve cells)  When a phosphate is added to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate), energy is stored  When a phosphate is removed from an ATP, energy is released

4 ATP

5 Endergonic vs. Exergonic  An endergonic reaction is any chemical reaction that stores energy Ex. photosynthesis  An exergonic reaction is any chemical reaction that releases energy Ex. cellular respiration

6 Question #1  Compared to unicellular organisms, cells of multicellular organisms have a. fewer functions b. thicker membranes c. larger nuclei d. less variation

7 Photosynthesis  Converts solar energy to chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates  Done by autotrophs including plants, algae, and photosynthetic bacteria  Takes place in the chloroplasts  Equation: 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + energy from sunlight  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

8 Chloroplasts  thylakoids – saclike photosynthetic membranes  grana – stacks of thylakoids  stroma – space outside the thylakoids

9 Two Main Reactions:  Light reactions – water is split, providing hydrogen and an energy source for the Calvin Cycle; oxygen is given off The ‘photo’ part of photosynthesis Also known as the light- dependent reactions Occurs in the thylakoids  Calvin Cycle – series of reactions that form simple sugars using carbon dioxide and hydrogen The ‘synthesis’ part of photosynthesis Also known as the dark reactions or the light- independent reactions Occurs in the stroma

10 Photosynthesis

11 Cellular Respiration  The carbohydrates produced by photosynthesis are used to produce ATP for life processes  Done by all organisms  Takes place in the mitochondria  Equation: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2  6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP

12 Three Main Steps:  Glycolysis – splitting the sugar, 2 ATP are produced Occurs in the cytoplasm  Krebs Cycle – 2 ATP are produced, carbon dioxide is released Occurs in the mitochondria  Electron Transport Chain – 32 ATP are produced, oxygen is used to make water Occurs in the mitochondria

13 Cellular Respiration

14 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic  Aerobic respiration – respiration that requires oxygen  Anaerobic respiration – respiration that does not require oxgyen Lactic acid fermentation Alcoholic fermentation

15 ATP Cycle

16 Question #2  The complexity of body systems differs greatly among organisms. Which of the following organisms has developed organ systems for obtaining and utilizing energy? a. bacterium b. mushroom c. mouse d. virus

17 Classification  Grouping of objects based on similarities  Taxonomy – the branch of biology dealing with grouping and naming organisms  Aristotle was the first to classify organisms Two groups: ○ Plants – shrubs, herbs, or trees ○ Animals – grouped based on where they live  Carolus Linnaeus developed the system that is still used today He also developed the two word naming system – binomial nomenclature

18 Binomial Nomenclature  The first word in the name identifies the genus and is always capitalized  The second word, the species, is a descriptive word and is never capitalized  Quercus alba – white oak (alba is Latin for ‘white’)  Quercus rubra – red oak (rubra is Latin for ‘red’)

19 Levels of Classification  Domain Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya  Kingdom Eubacteria, Archaebacteria, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia  Phylum  Class  Order  Family  Genus  Species

20 Kingdom Eubacteria  ‘true bacteria’  Prokaryotes  Cell walls with peptidoglycan  Unicellular  Autotrophs or heterotrophs  Ex. Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli

21 Kingdom Archaebacteria  ‘ancient bacteria’  Prokaryotes  Cell walls without peptidoglycan  Unicellular  Autotrophs or heterotrophs  Ex. Methanogens, halophiles

22 Kingdom Protista  Eukaryotes  Some have cell walls made of cellulose  Most are unicellular, some are colonial, some are multicellular  Autotrophs or heterotrophs  Ex. Amoeba, paramecium, algae, seaweed, slime molds

23 Kingdom Fungi  Eukaryotes  Cell walls made of chitin  Most are multicellular; some are unicellular  Heterotrophs  Ex. Mushrooms, yeasts

24 Kingdom Plantae  Eukaryotes  Cell walls made of cellulose  Multicellular  Autotrophs  Ex. Trees, mosses, ferns, flowering plants

25 Kingdom Animalia  Eukaryotes  No cell wall  Multicellular  Heterotrophs  Ex. Sponges, worms, insects, fish, mammals

26 Viruses  Are not classified because scientists cannot agree on whether or not they are living  They reproduce (in a host) and contain DNA or RNA but are not made of cells  Structure: DNA or RNA surrounded by a protein coat

27 Question #3  One main difference between members of the Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia is the ability to a. obtain energy b. reproduce c. move d. exchange gases

28 Question #4  The function of chlorophyll in a light reaction is to a. bind CO 2 to H 2 O b. split to produce O 2 c. trap light energy d. act as a source of CO 2

29 Question #5  A group of prokaryotes that live in extreme environments are the a. viruses b. protists c. eubacteria d. archaebacteria

30 Question #6  The table shows an early method of classifying animals.  Which of the following best illustrates why the modern Linnaean classification system has replaced the system developed by Aristotle? a. Flying insects fly over both land and water. b. Eating habits of reptiles and some land mammals are different. c. Sea snake bones are similar to those of reptiles that live on land. d. Birds are warm-blooded like mammals. GroupAir DwellersWater DwellersLand Dwellers ExamplesFlying insects, birds, bats Fish, whales, sea snakes Reptiles, land mammals

31 Question #7  Scientists have discovered a new species of animal. Which would provide the best basis for classifying this new species? a. DNA comparison b. diet of animal c. habitat of animal d. appearance of animal

32 Answers 1. A 2. C 3. C 4. C 5. D 6. C 7. A

33 Information and images obtained from:  x?PageReq=CI_TESTING_EOCT&Sub PageReq=GUIDES x?PageReq=CI_TESTING_EOCT&Sub PageReq=GUIDES  Google image search  Campbell, Neil A. and Reece Jane B (2001). "6". Biology. Benjamin Cummings.  Miller, Kenneth R. and Levine Joseph S. (2002). Biology. Prentice Hall.


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