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Chapter 7.3, The Cell's Interior and Organelle Structure and Function.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7.3, The Cell's Interior and Organelle Structure and Function."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7.3, The Cell's Interior and Organelle Structure and Function

2 The Foundation of the Cell  Just like a house, if you took away all the furniture, appliances, sheet rock, trim, electrical, plumbing, insulation and all the accessory components of a house, you would be left with a basic skeletal structure and a foundation.  Similarly, a cell's foundation starts with the Cytoplasm and the Cytoskeleton

3 The Cytoplasm and the Cytoskeleton

4 Function of the Cytoplasm and the Cytoskeleton  In prokaryotes, metabolic activities take place directly in the cytoplasm.  In eukaryotes, the cytoplasm holds all the organelles in place that perform all the metabolic activities.  Some other functions of the cytoskeleton and cytoplasm include transportation of substances, and cell division, but their main role is to support the cell and the organelles.

5 The Nucleus and DNA (The Boss)  One way to understand the cell is to use an analogy of a factory, or a school, or a sports team.  The nucleus of the cell is like a factory's manager, or a school's principal, or a sports team's captain or coach.  The Nucleus contains the cell's DNA, which is the blueprint or instructions for all of the cell's activities.  Everything a cell does is directed by the DNA.

6 Ribosomes (The Producers)  Almost our entire body is made up of proteins.  Ribosomes are non-membrane bound organelles that manufacture proteins.  Ribosomes are the only organelle found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  Ribosomes are made in the Nucleolus. The nucleolus is found in the center of the nucleus.  In our analogy, ribosomes would be the workers, the students in a school, or the players of a sport’s team.

7 Ribosomes

8 The Endoplasmic Reticulum (The Facilitators)  There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum.  ER is a system of folded sacs and channels.  Rough ER is called rough because it is covered with ribosomes. Smooth ER is without ribosomes.  ER synthesizes, transports, and assists the ribosomes in the production of proteins.  ER could be the assembly line of a factory, the teachers and staff of a school, or the assistant coaches of a sports team.

9 ER, the Facilitators

10 Golgi Apparatus (Golgi bodies) (The Inspectors and Shippers)  Once the proteins are manufactured and assembled, they are taken to the final inspection and packaging center; the Golgi Apparatus.  The Golgi Apparatus is a flattened stack of membranes that modify, sort, and package proteins.  The Golgi Apparatus could be inspectors and shippers at a factory, the counselors at school, or the officials and scorekeepers at a game.

11 The Golgi Apparatus (The Inspectors and Shippers)

12 The Vacoule (Storage Facility or Warehouse)  Vacuoles are temporary storage facilities in cells for things like enzymes and waste.  Vacuoles are mostly found in plant cells and rarely found in animal cells.  In a factory this could be the warehouse, in a school this could be the supply room, and for a team this could be the locker room.

13 The Vacoule (Storage Facility or Warehouse)

14 Lysosomes (The Clean-Up Crew)  Lysosomes are organelles that contain enzymes that break down food, waste and worn out organelles.  Lysosomes also help break down bacteria and viruses.  In our factory, school, and sports team analogies, our lysosomes could be represented by our building custodians. A very important, but underappreciated job. Next time you see a custodian, be sure to thank them for the hard work they do. If it wasn't for them, we would work in a filthy environment.

15 The Mitochondria (The Power)  None of the other jobs could be performed without an energy source.  The Mitochondria are the energy source (ATP) that fuels all the activities of the cell.  In a factory, the mitochondria could be a generator or some type of an electrical source.  In a school it could be the lunch room, or perhaps the electricity supplying the computers and all the technology in a school.  For a sports team it could be the fans cheering.

16 The Mitochondria (The Power)

17 The Chloroplasts (Alternative Energy)  Chloroplasts are organelles that can harness energy from the sun just like solar panels  Inside the chloroplasts are small flat disk-shaped structures called thylakoids that convert light from the sun into usable energy.  The thylakoids contain a special pigment called chlorophyll that traps the sunlight.  Chloroplasts are only found in plants, some protists and bacteria, but not animal cells.

18 Chloroplasts (Alternative Energy)

19 Cell Wall (Plant Skeletons)  The Cell Wall is another structure found only in plants, fungi, protists, and bacteria.  Animals have no cell walls.  For plants, the cell wall is what gives the plant support and structure.  Plants don't have a skeleton like animals, so the cell wall made of tough fibrous cellulose holds up the entire plant structure.  Giant redwoods and sequoias stand up several stories high under the force of cell walls.

20 Cell Walls (Plant Skeletons)

21 Cilia and Flagella (Transportation)  Cilia and Flagella are the transportation devices.  They can be found on both prokaryotic cells and eukaryotic cells.  Their primary function is locomotion.  Cilia are little hair-like structures that beat back and forth like little paddles.  Flagella are long tail-like structures that move around like a whip or a propeller.  In our analogy these could be cars or buses.

22 Cilia and Flagella (Transportation)

23 In Summary  Cytoplasm and Cytoskeleton – The Foundation  Nucleus – The Boss  Ribosomes – The Producers  ER – The Facilitators  Golgi Apparatus – The Inspectors and Shippers  Vacuole – Storage Facility or Warehouse  Lysosomes – The Clean-Up Crew  Mitochondria – The Power source  Chloroplasts – Alternative Energy  Cell Wall – Plant Skeletons  Cilia and Flagella - Transportation

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