Presentation on theme: "Protista Slideshow By: Paola Saavedra Anna Iszard."— Presentation transcript:
Protista Slideshow By: Paola Saavedra Anna Iszard
Diplomonadia Structure: Diplomonadia contain multiple flagella, two separate nuclei, a relatively simple cytoskeleton, no plastids, and no mitochondria. Interaction with humans: Diplomonadia is a parasite that infects the human intestine, causing abdominal cramps and severe diarrhea to occur. Someone can pick up Giardia by drinking water that is contaminated with human feces containing the parasite in a dormant cyst stage. Uniqueness: Boiling drinking water that contains diplomonadia kills the cysts. Example: Giardia lamblia
Parabasalida Structure: Parabasalida lack mitochondria and contain flagella. Interaction with humans: This is a common inhabitant of the vagina of human females. It can breed rapidly and infect the vaginal lining by overcoming beneficial microbial populations if the normal acidity of the vagina is disturbed. These infections can also occur in the urethras of males, though often without symptoms. Sexual transmission can spread the infection. Uniqueness: T. vaginalis has both flagella and an undulating membrane, which helps it move along the mucus-coated membrane within the reproductive and urinary tracts of their human hosts. Example: Trichomonas vaginalis
The Euglenophyta group is separated into two main categories: Euglenoids and Kinetoplastids
Euglenoids Structure: Euglenoids are known for having an anterior pocket, or chamber, from which one or two flagella emerge. Interaction with humans: They fight off germs and pollutants in our pond water. Uniqueness: Euglenoids are unicellular and are autotrophic. Contains Paramylon, a glucose polymer that functions as a storage molecule. Example: Euglena
Kinetoplastids Structure: Kinetoplastids house a single large mitochondrion associated with a kinetoplast, which houses extranuclear DNA. Interaction with humans: A species of Trypanosoma, a type of Kinetoplastid, causes an African sleeping sickness disease that is spread by the bite of the Tsetse fly. Uniqueness: Kinetoplastids are symbiotic, and some are pathogenic to their hosts. Example: Trypanosoma
The Alveolata group is separated into three main categories: Apicomplexans, ciliates, and Dinoflagellates.
Apicomplexans Structure: Apicomplexans are groups of parasites. Interaction with humans: Can cause serious diseases in humans, like Malaria. Uniqueness: All apicomplexans are parasites of animals. The parasties spread as tiny infectious cells called sporozoites. Reproduction: Apicomplexans have sexual and asexual stages throughout its life, and these cycles often require two or more different host species for completion. Example: Plasmodium
Ciliates Structure: Ciliates use their cilia for movement and feeding. These cilia are shorter than flagella. Interaction with humans: Ciliates do not interact with humans. Uniqueness: Ciliates live as solitary cells in fresh water. In ciliates, there is a presence of two types of nuclei, a large macronucleus and usually several tiny micronuclei. Reproduction: Ciliates reproduce through binary fission, where the macronucleus extends and splits, rather than undergoing mitotic division. Example: Stentor
Dinoflagellates Structure: Most dinoflagellates are unicellular, but some are colonial forms. Dinoflagellate have a characteristic shape which is reinforced in some species by internal plates of cellulose. The movement of two flagella in perpendicular grooves in this cellulose produces a spinning movement for which these organisms are named. Interaction with humans: Fish deaths have increased in coastal waters of the U.S. mid-Atlantic states in the past decade, possibly a result of pollution of the water with fertilizers containing dinoflagellates, affecting food supply for humans. Dinoflagellates give off light, creating an eerie ocean glow at night when waves, boats, or human swimmers agitate water containing dense populations of the dinoflagellates.
Dinoflagellates Cont. Uniqueness: Dinoflagellate blooms(episodes of explosive population growth) cause red tides in coastal waters. During these blooms, its toxin stuns fish, and the dinoflagellates feed on their prey’s body fluids. Some dinoflagellates are carnivorous. Some dinoflagellates are bioluminescent(glow). When the surrounding water is agitated by small predators that feed on phytoplankton, the light emitted by the dinoflagellates attracts fish that eat those smaller predators. Some dinoflagellates live as mutualistic symbionts of animals called cnidarians that build coral reefs, where the photosynthetic output of the dinoflagellates is the main source of food for the reef community. Example: Pfiesteria piscicida(on previous slide) Noctilucales(on current slide)
References Photos: – Carr, J. (2006). “Giardia lamblia SEM 8698 lores”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://phil.cdc.gov/PHIL_Images/8698/8698_lores.jpghttp://phil.cdc.gov/PHIL_Images/8698/8698_lores.jpg – Colm, G. (2010). “Trichomonas vaginalis phase contrast microscopy”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Trichomonas_vaginalis_phase_contrast_microscopy.j pg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/27/Trichomonas_vaginalis_phase_contrast_microscopy.j pg – Miklos, C. (2011). “Euglena diagram”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from Simple English Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Euglena_diagram.jpghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Euglena_diagram.jpg – Schultz, M. (1970). “Trypanosoma sp. PHIL 613 lores”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 15, 2012, from The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention: http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp?pid=613http://phil.cdc.gov/phil/details.asp?pid=613 – Hollings Marine Laboratory. (2007). “Pfiesteria piscicida”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from Science Daily: http://images.sciencedaily.com/2007/01/070119164427.jpghttp://images.sciencedaily.com/2007/01/070119164427.jpg – PLoS Biology. (2005). “Malaria”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Malaria.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Malaria.jpg – Quadell. (2005). “Stentor roeseli composite image”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Stentor_roeseli_composite_image.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5a/Stentor_roeseli_composite_image.jpg – Nilsson, J. A. (2001). “Volvox”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from Sharon Taxonomy: http://sharon-taxonomy2009-p3.wikispaces.com/Protista http://sharon-taxonomy2009-p3.wikispaces.com/Protista – Sampayo, M. A. (2007). “Noctiluca scintillans unica”. [Photograph]. Retrieved February 21, 2012, from Wikipedia: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Noctiluca_scintillans_unica.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/62/Noctiluca_scintillans_unica.jpg
References Cont. Text: – Campbell, N. A., & Reece, J. B. (2002). Biology. (6th ed. ed.). New York: Benjamin Cummings. – Edwards, G. I., & Pfirrmann, C. (2010). E-z biology. Barrons Educational Series Inc. – The Princeton Review. (2011). Cracking the sat biology e/m subject test. Princeton, New Jersey: The Princeton Review. – Aldridge, C., & Croston, G. E. (2011). Sat subject test: Biology e/m 2011-2012. New York, NY: Kaplan Publishing.