Five Big W’s WHAT: Disease in the Central Nervous System WHO: People Male/Female (equally affected) Old Male/Female White Old Male/Female (higher %) WHERE: BrainMidbrain Substantia Nigra Substantia Nigra WHEN: Average age of onset= 62.5 years young WHY: Dunno…Related to unknown death of dopamine- generating cells in the CNS
Statistics Average incidence: 20/100,000 in North America Average incidence: 20/100,000 in North America 1 Million Affected in the United States 1 Million Affected in the United States Average of 50,000 new cases each year in the U.S Average of 50,000 new cases each year in the U.S More than $5.6 billion spent each year for research More than $5.6 billion spent each year for research
Stages of Parkinson's One: Normal; lives independently Two: Takes twice as long to do chores; can live independently Three: Some dependency; able to do most chores. Four: Very dependent; able to assist in chores Five: 100% dependent; litte to none ability to do chore Six: Unable to swallow; bladder and bowel dysfunction; in bed or wheelchair
PD as a Polygenetic Disease Genetics/Environmental Components
Genetic Component Defective Alpha-Synuclein Gene may be related to the cause of Parkinson’s Disease in some cases Mutation in Parkin Gene is one of the reason for high incidence of early onset in China (One of the focuses of Professor Liu’s research)
Background Accumulation of mitochondrial oxidative stress and abnormal proteins= impaired dopaminergic neurons Parkin gene’s function: activates self- repair mechanism in the mitochondria Mortalin: molecular chaperon located primarily in the mitochondria for mitochondrial homeostasis PD= Parkin gene mutation + reduced levels of mortalin in brain regions of PD patients.
Focuses 1.Adverse effects of mitochondrial dysfunction result of dismantled mortalin and Parkin gene mutation 2.Parkin gene overexpression prevents mitochondrial dysfunctions?
Materials/Methods Monitored MMP, ROS, mtDNA copy numbers to determine the role of mortalin and Parkin gene under H 2 O 2 induced settings Stained HeLa cells with MTG to determine the effects of reduced levels of mortalin on mitochondria Cell culture, transfection, immunofluorescence etc.