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Part of the Patterns in Nature Module Biology in Focus, Preliminary Course Glenda Childrawi and Stephanie Hollis Patterns in Nature Topic 5: The Ultrastructure.

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Presentation on theme: "Part of the Patterns in Nature Module Biology in Focus, Preliminary Course Glenda Childrawi and Stephanie Hollis Patterns in Nature Topic 5: The Ultrastructure."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part of the Patterns in Nature Module Biology in Focus, Preliminary Course Glenda Childrawi and Stephanie Hollis Patterns in Nature Topic 5: The Ultrastructure of Cells

2 DOT Point Describe the relationship between the structure of cell organelles and their function

3 The Ultrastructure of Cells In order to look at cells and their organelles in detail, photographs that have been produced using an electron microscope can be studied. These photographs are called electron micrographs. The structure of each organelle is closely related to its function within the cell.

4 Membranes-Selective Boundaries The cell membrane is a selective barrier, permitting the passage of only certain molecules into or out of cells. This property gives the cell membrane the feature of being selectively permeable. The membrane surrounding organelles are also selective. Both plant and animal cells have a cell membrane.

5 The Nucleus-the control centre The nucleus stores the information needed to control all cell activities. It is essential that the nucleus is able to communicate with the surrounding cytoplasm.

6 The Nucleus-the control centre Electron micrographs have revealed that the nucleus is surrounded by a double nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope, pierced by tiny pores. These pores regulate the passage of substances allowing communication between the nucleus and other parts of the cell.

7 The Nucleus-the control centre The nucleoplasm or nuclear sap is the liquid background of the nucleus in which chromatin material is found. Chromatin is made up of protein and nucleic acid (DNA)

8 The Nucleus-the control centre The Nucleolus is a dense, granular region commonly seen within the nuclear sap and contains a large amount of nucleic acid (some DNA but mostly RNA) The nucleolus is responsible for the manufacture of organelles called ribosomes

9 Ribosomes These small organelles appear as dense granules in electron micrographs. Their small size and rounded shape increase their surface area for easy interaction with chemicals. Each is made of the chemicals RNA and protein and their function is protein synthesis.

10 Ribosomes Their function is protein synthesis. They are the machinery that carry out the genetic coded instructions of DNA to produce any proteins necessary for cell function and structure. Ribosomes may be found free in the cytoplasm or scattered over the surface of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER).

11 Endoplasmic Reticulum The outer nuclear membrane is usually continuous with a network of flattened, interconnected membranes-The Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). The ER provides a connection of pathways between the nucleus and the cells environment, allowing intracellular transport.

12 Endoplasmic Reticulum The ER may have ribosomes attached (rough ER) or may have no ribosomes (smooth ER). The main function of the ER is transport but it also plays a role in processing cell products.

13 Golgi Bodies The Golgi body is easily recognisable by its curved shape on one surface (forming face), where its vesicles can be seen budding off. The opposite surface may be convex or flat in shape. Golgi bodies process, package and ‘sort’ cell products which are transported to where they are needed or secreted out of the cell.

14 Lysosomes These little fluid filled sacs are products of Golgi bodies. They are filled with digestive enzymes for intercellular digestion. Lysosomes commonly break down worn out cell organelles so material can be recycled and used again to make new organelles.

15 Mitochondria Mitochondria are the ‘powerhouses’ of a cell, producing energy by the process of chemical respiration. Mitochondria are usually rod shaped but may be round and contain their own DNA. They are smaller than the nucleus and chloroplasts but larger than ribosomes. The number of mitochondria in a cell depends on how much energy the cell needs to carry out its functions.

16 Mitochondria Mitochondria combine oxygen with sugars during the process of chemical respiration to release energy in a form (ATP) that the cell can use.

17 Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are green plastids which carry out the process of photosynthesis. They are larger than mitochondria but are similar in that they also contain their own DNA. Chloroplasts are not found in all plant cells, only green cells that photosynthesise.

18 Chloroplasts The liquid background is called stroma and it is here that stacks of membranes called thylakoids are found. Each stack is termed granum and the green pigment chlorophyll is found in these membranes. The layering of the membranes increase the surface area allowing a large amount of sunlight to be absorbed for the process of photosynthesis.

19 Cytoskeleton Organelles are held in place by a network of tiny microtubules and microfilaments called cytoskeleton, which extends throughout the cytoplasm.

20 Plant Cell Wall The cell wall is built up of strands of cellulose fibres which have a little elasticity and are somewhat flexible. Its structure allows it to provide strength and support. It’s different from the membrane beneath it because the cell wall is not really selective in terms of what substances it does or does not allow into the cell

21 Homework Answer the following questions in your notebook. Be prepared to discuss next lesson. Complete DOT Point 1.5.1 summarising organelles and their functions. Hand out page 24 Prelim DOT Point Text

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