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Organelles With DNA  Mitochondria  bounded by exterior and interior membranes  interior partitioned by cristae  Chloroplasts  have enclosed internal.

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Presentation on theme: "Organelles With DNA  Mitochondria  bounded by exterior and interior membranes  interior partitioned by cristae  Chloroplasts  have enclosed internal."— Presentation transcript:

1 Organelles With DNA  Mitochondria  bounded by exterior and interior membranes  interior partitioned by cristae  Chloroplasts  have enclosed internal compartments of stacked grana, containing thylakoids  found in photosynthetic organisms

2 Mitochondria A. "Powerhouse of the cell" - cellular metabolism B. Structure- outer and inner membranes, cristae C. Have their own DNA

3 Mitochondria- Introduction  sausage-shaped typically 1 to 4 μ long, divide by fission  outer membrane is porous  less porous inner membranes  loosely described as a large wrinkled bag packed inside of a smaller, unwrinkled bag.

4 Outer membrane  simple phospholipid bilayer, containing protein structures called porins  Porins render it permeable to molecules of about 10 kilodaltons or less (the size of the smallest proteins).  Ions, nutrient molecules, ATP, ADP, etc. can pass through the outer membrane with ease.  The intermembrane space has an important role in the primary function of mitochondria, which is oxidative phosphorylation.

5 Inner membrane  freely permeable only to oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.  Its structure is highly complex, including all of the complexes of the electron transport system, the ATP synthetase complex, and transport proteins.  The wrinkles, or folds, are organized into lamillae (layers), called the cristae (singlular: crista).  The cristae greatly increase the total surface area of the inner membrane.

6 Matrix  contains the enzymes for the citric acid cycle reactions.  The matrix also contains dissolved oxygen, water, carbon dioxide, the recyclable intermediates that serve as energy shuttles,  matrix components can diffuse to inner membrane complexes and transport proteins within a relatively short time-diffusion is slow process.  Isolated mitochondria, show a rounded appearance in electron micrographs-mitochondria are spherical

7 Plastids three types  1. Chloroplast: By trapping solar energy, green plastids manufacture food through photosynthesis  2. Chromoplasts provide color to various flowering parts-  the primary function in the cells of flowers is to attract agents of pollination, and in fruit to attract agents of dispersal  3.Leucoplasts are the centers of starch grain formation; they are also involved in the synthesis of oils and proteins

8 Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are larger and more complex than mitochondria Grana – closed compartments of stacked membranes Thylakoids – disc shaped structure – light capturing pigment Stroma – fluid matrix

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10 three membranes divide chloroplasts into three distinct internal  (1) the intermembrane space between the two membranes of the chloroplast envelope;  (2) the stroma, which lies inside the envelope but outside the thylakoid membrane; and  (3) the thylakoid lumen.

11 Endosymbiosis  Endosymbiotic theory suggests engulfed prokaryotes provided hosts with advantages associated with specialized metabolic activities.

12 Theory of Endosymbiosis


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