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The Story of Human Evolution. Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Part 2: What makes us human? Evolution and adaptation in modern humans.

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Presentation on theme: "The Story of Human Evolution. Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Part 2: What makes us human? Evolution and adaptation in modern humans."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Story of Human Evolution

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3 Part 1: From ape-like ancestors to modern humans Part 2: What makes us human? Evolution and adaptation in modern humans

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5 How do scientists study human evolution? HYPOTHESIS Prediction Observation Gather evidence, test with experiments THEORY Humans and apes share many biological features Humans and apes have a common ancestor 1. Humans and apes should share a high percentage of DNA 2. There should be fossils with human and ape-like features 1.Measure DNA differences between humans and apes. 2.Examine fossils from several million years ago. Humans evolved from ape-like creatures

6 HumanChimpanzeeGorillaOrangutanGibbonOld-World monkeys

7 MonkeyChimpHuman Time (million yrs ago) Allan Wilson

8 DNA and proteins can be used to study genetic similarities between species

9 Molecular differences show that humans diverged from chimpanzees 5-6 million years ago MonkeyChimpHuman Time (million yrs ago) Allan Wilson

10 Sequence difference MonkeyChimpHuman Time (million yrs ago) Monkey ChimpHuman Albumin protein Human – chimp difference Human – monkey difference Sequence difference

11 Our earliest ancestors lived in Africa

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13 Hadar, Ethiopia – site of Lucy’s discovery Lucy is one of the most important hominid fossils ever discovered

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15 Australopithecus - an ape who walked on two legs

16 Footprints left by Australopithecus confirm early upright walking

17 The earliest stone tools are from million years ago

18 Homo habilis was the first to use stone tools

19 Early humans were using fire and sophisticated tools 1.8 million years ago.

20 Homo erectus was the first to migrate out of Africa

21 When and where did modern humans evolve? Australopithecus Homo habilis Homo erectus Homo neanderthalensis Homo sapiens

22 Africa EuropeAsia Modern humans Homo erectus

23 Africa EuropeAsia Homo erectus Modern humans

24 Mitochondria Nucleus

25 Mitochondria: DNA comes from mother Offspring cell Nucleus: DNA comes from both parents

26 Mitochondrial DNA traces the female line

27 We are all descended from a small population living in Africa 150,000 to 200,000 years ago

28 Modern humans colonize the globe Homo sapiens Neanderthals Early hominids , , ,000 40,000 70,000 25,000 15,000 12,

29 © Produced by Hilary Miller in association with the Allan Wilson Centre for Molecular Ecology and Evolution Thanks to Azra Moeed, Caroline Thomas, and Glenda Lewis for assistance with preparing this presentation

30 Image credits Slides 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd. Slide 8: Wikimedia Commons Slide 11: Science Photo Library Slide 12: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu) Slide 13, 14, 15: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd. Slide 16: Science Photo Library Slide 17: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd. Slide 18, 19, 20, 21: Science Photo Library Slide 24: Wikimedia Commons Slide 25: Univ. of California Museum of Paleontology (http://evolution.berkeley.edu) Slide 27: Science Photo Library Slide 28: Wikimedia Commons (edited) Slides 29, 30: TRANZ INTERNATIONAL Image Library Ltd.


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