Presentation on theme: "ENERGY Cellular Respiration. Cellular Respiration Process that releases energy (chemical) by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence."— Presentation transcript:
ENERGY Cellular Respiration
Cellular Respiration Process that releases energy (chemical) by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen Occurs in both plants and animals and fungi There are 2 types Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration - With OXYGEN - Without OXYGEN
Products of Photosynthesis O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 (Reactants of photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP) Reactants of Respirations (products of respiration CO 2 + H 2 O + ATP)
The Process of Respiration Part 2
The whole process is divided into 2 parts: Aerobic Oxygen Occurs in mitochondria Divided into 2 stages: Kreb cycle (citric acid cycle) Electron Transport Chain Anaerobic No Oxygen Occurs in cytoplasm Glycolysis is an anaerobic process Glucose is broken into pyruvic acid and ATP
GLYCOLYSIS Remember…”-lysis” means “to break” Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of PYRUVATE Glycolysis is anaerobic Pyruvate can then be used for cellular respiration Location: cytoplasm Occurs before cellular respiration can happen
Glycolysis Once glucose is imported into the cell: Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvate Produces 4 ATP per glucose 2 ATP molecules are “used” up leaving us with a net gain of 2 ATP molecules produced for the cell to use for energy. Pyruvate enters the mitochondria and provides the materials needed for the Kreb’s cycle
Glucose Glycolysis Cytoplasm Pyruvic acid Electrons carried in NADH Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Mitochondrion
Fermentation Sometimes a cell can’t get the oxygen that it needs to carry out aerobic respiration. It carries out fermentation to make energy instead (ATP) Less EFFECTIVE, doesn’t make as much ATP Location: Cytoplasm
Fermentation- ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Isn’t a “clean burn” so nasty, or intoxicating, waste products are left behind There are 2 types Alcoholic FermentationLactic Acid Fermentation -Produces ethanol (alcohol) as a waste product -Used for producing beer, wine, and rising bread -Produces lactic acid as a waste product -Is part of the burn you feel in your muscles when you exercise.
Glucose Pyruvic acid Lactic Acid Fermentation Notice that a total of 2 ATP molecules are made for each molecule of glucose during glycolysis Notice that NAD+ is “regenerated” to be used in glycolysis This is a low energy yield process (only 2 ATP’s) but this can be enough to sustain our cells when we can’t get enough oxygen
AEROBIC RESPIRATION Requires Oxygen More effective, make MUCH MORE ATP Is a “clean burn” – no nasty waste products left behind Location: Mitochondria
AEROBIC RESPIRATION KNOW THE FORMULA!!! C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 H 2 O + CO 2 + ATP GLUCOSE (FOOD) OXYGEN WATER CARBON DIOXIDE Processes associated with it Glycolysis Krebs Cycle Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Kreb’s Cycle (citric acid cycle) Breaks pyruvate down into CO 2 Occurs in the mitochondria Produces 2 ATP per glucose Produces NADH & FADH 2 FADH 2 and NADH provide power for the ETC FADH 2 and NADH are carrying chemical energy The carbon dioxide produced here diffuses out of the mitochondria, out of the cell and into the bloodstream where it is carried to the lungs and diffuses into the air that we exhale.
Citric Acid Production
Electron Transport Chain FADH 2 and NADH pass some of their electrons onto the ETC ETC is like a game of hot potato, where electrons from FADH 2 and NADH are the potato, and proteins in the mitochondria are the people passing the potato. OXYGEN IS REQUIRED. The flow of electrons down the chain powers a special protein, called “ATP synthase,” which synthesizes (makes) ATP Produces 32 ATP per glucose! Total ATP production per glucose during aerobic respiration = 36 ATP
Electron Transport Hydrogen Ion Movement ATP Production ATP synthase Channel Matrix Intermembrane Space Inner Membrane
DRAW CELLULAR RESPIRATION DIAGRAM ON BOARD!! MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW THIS ON QUIZ!!
Photosynthesis Energy capture Chloroplast CO 2 and H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 and O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Cellular Respiration Energy release Mitochondria C 6 H 12 O 6 and O 2 CO 2 and H 2 O 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6CO H 2 O Function Location Reactants Products Equation