2 Cellular RespirationProcess that releases energy (chemical) by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygenOccurs in both plants and animals and fungiThere are 2 typesAnaerobic RespirationAerobic Respiration- Without OXYGEN- With OXYGEN
3 Products of Photosynthesis O2 + C6H12O6 (Reactants of photosynthesisCO2 + H2O + ATP)Reactants of Respirations(products of respiration
5 The whole process is divided into 2 parts: AnaerobicNo OxygenOccurs in cytoplasmGlycolysis is an anaerobic processGlucose is broken into pyruvic acid and ATPAerobicOxygenOccurs in mitochondriaDivided into 2 stages:Kreb cycle (citric acid cycle)Electron Transport Chain
6 GLYCOLYSIS Remember…”-lysis” means “to break” Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of PYRUVATEGlycolysis is anaerobicPyruvate can then be used for cellular respirationLocation: cytoplasmOccurs before cellular respiration can happen
7 Glycolysis Once glucose is imported into the cell: Glucose is broken down into 2 molecules of pyruvateProduces 4 ATP per glucose2 ATP molecules are “used” up leaving us with a net gain of 2 ATP molecules produced for the cell to use for energy.Pyruvate enters the mitochondria and provides the materials needed for the Kreb’s cycle
9 Electron Transport Chain MitochondrionElectrons carried in NADHElectrons carried in NADH and FADH2Pyruvic acidElectron Transport ChainGlycolysisKrebs CycleGlucoseCytoplasmMitochondrion
10 FermentationSometimes a cell can’t get the oxygen that it needs to carry out aerobic respiration.It carries out fermentation to make energy instead (ATP)Less EFFECTIVE, doesn’t make as much ATPLocation: Cytoplasm
11 Fermentation- ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION Isn’t a “clean burn” so nasty, or intoxicating, waste products are left behindThere are 2 typesAlcoholic FermentationLactic Acid Fermentation-Produces lactic acid as a waste product-Is part of the burn you feel in your muscles when you exercise.Produces ethanol (alcohol) as a waste productUsed for producing beer, wine, and rising bread
12 Lactic Acid Fermentation GlucosePyruvic acidNotice that a total of 2 ATP molecules are made for each molecule of glucose during glycolysisNotice that NAD+ is “regenerated” to be used in glycolysisThis is a low energy yield process (only 2 ATP’s) but this can be enough to sustain our cells when we can’t get enough oxygen
13 AEROBIC RESPIRATION Requires Oxygen More effective, make MUCH MORE ATP Is a “clean burn” – no nasty waste products left behindLocation: Mitochondria
14 AEROBIC RESPIRATION C6H12O6 + O2 H2O + CO2 + ATP KNOW THE FORMULA!!!C6H12O6 + O2 H2O + CO2 + ATPGLUCOSE (FOOD) OXYGEN WATER CARBON DIOXIDEProcesses associated with itGlycolysisKrebs CycleElectron Transport Chain (ETC)
15 Kreb’s Cycle (citric acid cycle) Breaks pyruvate down into CO2Occurs in the mitochondriaProduces 2 ATP per glucoseProduces NADH & FADH2FADH2 and NADH provide power for the ETCFADH2 and NADH are carrying chemical energyThe carbon dioxide produced here diffuses out of the mitochondria, out of the cell and into the bloodstream where it is carried to the lungs and diffuses into the air that we exhale.
19 Electron Transport Chain FADH2 and NADH pass some of their electrons onto the ETCETC is like a game of hot potato, where electrons from FADH2 and NADH are the potato, and proteins in the mitochondria are the people passing the potato. OXYGEN IS REQUIRED.The flow of electrons down the chain powers a special protein, called “ATP synthase,” which synthesizes (makes) ATPProduces 32 ATP per glucose!Total ATP production per glucose during aerobic respiration = 36 ATP
20 Electron TransportHydrogen Ion MovementChannelIntermembraneSpaceATP synthaseInnerMembraneMatrixATP Production
23 DRAW CELLULAR RESPIRATION DIAGRAM ON BOARD!! MAKE SURE YOU CAN DRAW THIS ON QUIZ!!
24 Function Location Reactants Products Equation Photosynthesis Energy captureChloroplastCO2 and H2OC6H12O6 and O26CO2 + 6H2O C6H12O6 + 6O2Cellular RespirationEnergy releaseMitochondriaC6H12O6 and O2CO2 and H2O6O2 + C6H12O6 6CO2 + 6 H2OFunctionLocationReactantsProductsEquation