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 What part of photosynthesis happens across the thylokoid membrane?  What are the two steps of the light reaction?  These have scientific names!  What.

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Presentation on theme: " What part of photosynthesis happens across the thylokoid membrane?  What are the two steps of the light reaction?  These have scientific names!  What."— Presentation transcript:

1  What part of photosynthesis happens across the thylokoid membrane?  What are the two steps of the light reaction?  These have scientific names!  What is the final product in chemiosmosis?  What enzyme helps make ATP?  In photosynthesis where does the oxygen come from (What molecule)?

2 Notes 7: Aerobic Pathways

3 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Pathways Two pathways exist for accessing stored energy… Both pathways: 1) Begin with Glycolysis 2) Produce a Pyruvic Acid Intermediate 3) Differ in ATP production and final product Aerobic Pathways take place in the presence of oxygen Anaerobic Pathways take place in the absence of oxygen

4 The Mitochondria ●In prokaryotes, Aerobic Respiration will take place in the cytosol ● In eukaryotes, Aerobic Respiration will take place in the mitochondria ● Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol whether prokaryote or eukaryote ● Mitochondrial Matrix = the area inside the cristae that contains the enzymes needed for the Krebs cycle ● Cristae = the folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria that contains the electron transport chain.

5 Glycolysis ● Glycolysis = a biochemical pathway in which a 6 carbon molecule of glucose is cut into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. ● Produces a net yield of 2 ATP molecules per glucose ● The pyruvic acid will either enter an anaerobic or aerobic pathway for further processing.

6  Where does Glycolysis happen in prokaryotes?  In eukaryotes?  Where does Aerobic respiration (after glycolysis) happen in prokaryotes?  In eukaryotes?  Make a double bubble comparing and contrasting Aerobic and Anaerobic Pathways.  Minimum 3 similarities and 2 differences each.

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8 Aerobic vs. Anaerobic Pathways Two pathways exist for accessing stored energy… Both pathways: 1) Begin with Glycolysis 2) Produce a Pyruvic Acid Intermediate 3) Differ in ATP production and final product Aerobic Pathways take place in the presence of oxygen Anaerobic Pathways take place in the absence of oxygen

9 The Mitochondria ● Mitochondrial Matrix = the area inside the cristae that contains the enzymes needed for the Krebs cycle ● Cristae = the folds of the inner membrane of the mitochondria that contains the electron transport chain.

10 Glycolysis ● Glycolysis = a biochemical pathway in which a 6 carbon molecule of glucose is cut into two three-carbon molecules of pyruvic acid. ● Produces a net yield of 2 ATP and 2 NADH molecules per glucose ● The pyruvic acid will either enter an anaerobic or aerobic pathway for further processing.

11 Aerobic Respiration Part 1: The Krebs Cycle ● Pyruvic acid enters from glycolysis The pathway produces:2 CO 2 per pyruvate 3 NADH (an energy carrying molecule) 1 FADH 2 (an energy carrying molecule) 1 ATP ● Eukaryotes = occurs in the Mitochondrial Matrix ● Prokaryotes = occurs in the cytosol

12 Aerobic Respiration Part 2: The Electron Transport Chain & Chemiosmosis ●Prokaryotes = the electron transport chain and the enzyme ATP synthase are embedded in the cell membrane. ● Eukaryotes = the electron transport chain and the enzyme ATP synthase are embedded in the cristae. ● Oxygen is the final electron acceptor. If it is not available then chain is stopped. By accepting the electrons and protons Water is produced. ● Chemiosmosis produces ATP through the proton concentration gradient

13 Total Energy Production: 4 ATP are made directly 34 ATP are made through NADH/FADH 2 going through chemiosmosis 38 ATP Made In Total - 2 ATP for transporting NADH into the Mitochondria from Glycolysis 36 Net ATP Made by Eukaryotes Aerobic Respiration is 20 times more efficient than Glycolysis alone.

14 Homework Fact: Our bodies use ATP at the rate of about 1 million molecules per cell per second. There are more than 100 trillion cells in the human body. That’s about 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 ATP molecules used in your body each second! Read Answer questions 1-6 on p.144


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