Presentation on theme: "Glycolysis Introduction of Glucose Metabolism Lecture-2."— Presentation transcript:
Glycolysis Introduction of Glucose Metabolism Lecture-2
Glycolysis Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to: energy 1- Provide energy in the form of ATP (main function) intermediates 2- Provide intermediates for other metabolic pathways. cytosols all tissues It occurs in cytosols of all tissues All sugars can be converted to glucose & thus can be metabolized by glycolysis.
End products of glycolysis 1- In cells with mitochondria & an adequate supply of oxygen Aerobic glycolysis (Aerobic glycolysis) Pyruvate - Pyruvate: enters the mitochondria & is converted into acetyl CoA. Acetyl CoA enters citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle) to yield energy in the form of ATP NADH: - NADH: utilizes mitochondria & oxygen to yield energy In cells with no mitochondria or adequate oxygen (or Both) 2- In cells with no mitochondria or adequate oxygen (or Both) Anaerobic glycolysis (Anaerobic glycolysis) Lactate Lactate: formed from pyruvate (by utilizing NADH)
Overall reactions of glycolysis
Glycolysis Glucose (6C) 2 Pyruvate (3C) 2 ATP 2 ADP 4 ADP 4 ATP 2 NAD 2 NADH+ H +
Pyruvate is the end product is the end product of aerobic glycolysis Lactate is the end product is the end product of anaerobic glycolysis End products of glycolysis NADH is an end product of aerobic glycolysis AEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS Mitochondria & Oxygen ANAEROBIC GLYCOLYSIS No mitochondria No Oxygen Or Both
Steps catalyzed By key enzymes ONE WAY REACTIONS Key enzymes in glycolysis
Energy yield from glycolysis Energy yield from glycolysis 1- Anerobic glycolysis 2 molecule of ATP for each one molecule of glucose converted to 2 molecules of lactate It is a valuable source of energy under the following conditions Oxygen supply is limited 1- Oxygen supply is limited as in Tissues with no mitochondria skeletal muscles during intensive exercise 2- Tissues with no mitochondria skeletal muscles during intensive exercise Kidney medulla RBCs Leukocytes Lens & cornea cells Testes 2-Aerobic glycolysis 2 moles of ATP for each one mol of glucose converted to 2 moles of pyruvate 2 molecules of NADH for each molecule of glucose 2 or 3 ATPs for each NADH entering electric transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria.
Energy yield from glycolysis Energy yield from glycolysis In anaerobic glycolysis: 2 ATP for one glucose molecule In aerobic glycolysis Glycolysis: 2 ATP 2 NADH: 2 X 3 = 6 ATP NADH Pyruvate Acetyl CoA 2 Pyruvate produce 2 Acetyl CoA (& 2 NADH): 2 X 3 = 6 ATP 2 Acetl CoA in citric acid cycle: 2 X 12 = 24 ATP
Energy yield of aerobic glycolysis 2 Lactate 2 Lactate Oxygen & Mitochondria No Oxygen No Mitochondria OR BOTH GLUCOSE 2 PYRUVATE 2NAD+ 2 NADH 6 ATP = 2 X 3 = 6 ATP 2 ACETYL CoA 2 ACETYL CoA CITRIC ACID CYCLE 24 ATP = 2 X 12 = 24 ATP 2NAD+ 2 NADH 6 ATP = 2 X 3 = 6 ATP Energy yield of anaerobic glycolysis 2 ATP Net = 2 ATP/ glucose molecule Net = 38 ATP / glucose molecule
Oxidative phosphorylation: Oxidative phosphorylation: The formation of high-energy phosphate bonds by phosphorylation of ADP to ATP coupled to the the electron transport chain (ETC) that occurs in the mitochondria. Substrate-level phosphorylation: Substrate-level phosphorylation: The formation of high-energy phosphate bonds by phosphorylation of ADP to ATP (or GDP to GTP) It is coupled to cleavage of a high-energy metabolic intermediate (substrate). It may occur in cytosol or mitochondria Example: in glycolysis ATPs are produced ENERGY PRODUCTION Oxidative phosphorylation & Substrate-level phosphorylation
Regulation of key enzyme of glycolysis The regulation of the activity of key enzyme is conducted through: 1- General: (occurs in all types of enzymes in the body) increasing substrate concentration will lead to increase activity of the enzyme 2-Special regulatory mechanisms: i- Allosteric effectors ii- Covalent modification iii. Induction/Repression of enzyme synthesis( long –term regulation)
Example of Covalent Modification (short-term regulation)
Long-term Regulation of glycolysis Induction & Repression of enzymes synthesis Insulin: Induction Glucagon: Repression
Genetic defects of glycolytic enzymes Pyruvate kinase deficiency Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency leads to a reduced rate of glycolysis with decreased ATP production. PK deficiency effect is restricted RBCs. As RBCs has no mitochondria & so get ATP only from glycolysis. RBCs needs ATP mainly for maintaining the bio- concave flexible shape of the cell. PK deficiency leads to severe deficiency of ATP for RBCs. So, RBCs fail to maintain bi-concave shape ending in liability to be lysed (hemolysis). chronic hemolytic anemia Excessive lysis of RBCs leads to chronic hemolytic anemia.