Presentation on theme: "Musculoskeletal & energy systems Long term effects of exercise"— Presentation transcript:
1Musculoskeletal & energy systems Long term effects of exercise
2Learning ObjectivesCan you describe the long-term effects of exercise on the Musculoskeletal and Energy Systems? (P3)Can you explain the long-term effects of exercise on the Musculoskeletal and Energy Systems? (M2)
3Key Verbs VERB PLAIN ENGLISH Describe Try to “Paint a picture” in words. Assume that the person that you are Describing to does not know anything about the subject that you are describing. Tell them what you have learned.ExplainOnce you have Described the subject, often you will need to give further details and reasons why. (e.g) Once you have described England’s poor performance in the World Cup, you may also give some reasons why the players did not perform as well as they could.
4ContentEnergy System – increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source Skeletal System – Increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid Muscular System – hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increase storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid.
5NO.Learner Checklist(Steps to Success)1Assignment Title : The Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Body2Paint a picture of the long-term effects of exercise on the Muscoskeletal system.Include: Hypertrophy, Increase in Tendon Strength, Increase in Myoglobin Stores, Increased Mitochondria, Increased Glycogen and Fat Stores, Increased Muscle Strength, Increased tolerance to Lactic Acid, Increased Bone Calcium, Increased Ligament Stretch, Increased thickness of Hyaline Cartilage, Increased production of Synovial Fluid.(e.g.) Muscle Hypertrophy – The size and bulk of the muscles increases. Use of the muscles causes them to tear through stress. The muscle tissue repairs itself and makes the muscle tissue bigger as a resultGive further details and provide reasons (Where appropriate).(e.g.) Muscles become more efficient at using oxygen as a result of training. More Mitochondria are produced in muscle cells. These are the site where energy is produced and if more sites are available then more energy can be produced and therefore the muscles are able to work for longer due to the increased energy that is available to them.3Paint a picture of the long-term effects of exercise on the Energy systems. Include: Increased Aerobic and Anaerobic Enzymes, Increased use of Fats for energy.(e.g.)More Aerobic Enzymes are produced through aerobic exercise. These are able to breakdown glucose more effectively and efficientlyGive further details and provide reasons (Where appropriate).(e.g.)More Enzymes are also available to breakdown Fats. More body fat can be stored in muscles as a result of training. The enzymes mean that more fat can be used as an energy source, meaning that the athlete can compete for longer.
6Long-Term effects on Muscles Muscle HypertrophyStress causes muscle to tearMuscle repairs itselfTissue becomes bigger and better
7Increased Tendon Strength Adapt in the same way as musclesMay also increase flexibilityCartilage thickens
8Increased MyoglobinMuscles can store more Myoglobin as a result of regular exerciseBinds to oxygen in musclesImproved Oxygen carrying capacity
9Increased Mitochondria/Glycogen + Fat Mitochondria – Produce ATP. Therefore can produce more energyGlycogen – Stored form of Glucose. Source of energy = More energyFat - Triglycerides mean that you have a larger source of energy to draw from
10Improved Muscle Strength Overloading the resistance that muscles are movingMuscle adapts and gets stronger
11Increased Lactate Tolerance Lactic Acid causes fatigueAble to flush it out quicker and tolerate levels moreImproved Capillarisation helps removal in Endurance activities
12Long-Term Effects on the Skeleton Increased Bone CalciumBones strengthen due to the stress placed on themMore calcium improves Bone StrengthLess chance of Osteoporosis
13Increased Ligament Stretch Ligaments and Tendons become more flexibleLigaments are more pliableIncreased ability to change shapes at joints
14Thicker Hyaline Cartilage Less chance of bones rubbing togetherLess FrictionMore efficient movementMore Synovial Fluid
15Long Term effects on Energy Systems Increased Aerobic EnzymesMitochondria increase in sizeMore enzymes means that ATP can be broken down more effectivelyMore enzymes to break down body fat
16Increased Anaerobic enzymes More Glycolytic EnzymesMore efficient Anaerobic GlycolysisBody can buffer effects of Lactic Acid
17Increased use of FatsTraining means that Fat stores can be accessed more readilyMore Fat is stored in muscle tissueCan exercise for longer