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Musculoskeletal & energy systems Long term effects of exercise

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Presentation on theme: "Musculoskeletal & energy systems Long term effects of exercise"— Presentation transcript:

1 Musculoskeletal & energy systems Long term effects of exercise

2 Learning Objectives Can you describe the long-term effects of exercise on the Musculoskeletal and Energy Systems? (P3) Can you explain the long-term effects of exercise on the Musculoskeletal and Energy Systems? (M2)

3 Key Verbs VERB PLAIN ENGLISH Describe
Try to “Paint a picture” in words. Assume that the person that you are Describing to does not know anything about the subject that you are describing. Tell them what you have learned. Explain Once you have Described the subject, often you will need to give further details and reasons why. (e.g) Once you have described England’s poor performance in the World Cup, you may also give some reasons why the players did not perform as well as they could.

4 Content Energy System – increased aerobic and anaerobic enzymes; increased use of fats as an energy source Skeletal System – Increase in bone calcium stores; increased stretch in ligaments; increased thickness of hyaline cartilage; increased production of synovial fluid Muscular System – hypertrophy; increase in tendon strength; increase in myoglobin stores; increased number of mitochondria; increase storage of glycogen and fat; increased muscle strength; increased tolerance to lactic acid.

5 NO. Learner Checklist(Steps to Success) 1 Assignment Title : The Long Term Effects of Exercise on the Body 2 Paint a picture of the long-term effects of exercise on the Muscoskeletal system. Include: Hypertrophy, Increase in Tendon Strength, Increase in Myoglobin Stores, Increased Mitochondria, Increased Glycogen and Fat Stores, Increased Muscle Strength, Increased tolerance to Lactic Acid, Increased Bone Calcium, Increased Ligament Stretch, Increased thickness of Hyaline Cartilage, Increased production of Synovial Fluid. (e.g.) Muscle Hypertrophy – The size and bulk of the muscles increases. Use of the muscles causes them to tear through stress. The muscle tissue repairs itself and makes the muscle tissue bigger as a result Give further details and provide reasons (Where appropriate).(e.g.) Muscles become more efficient at using oxygen as a result of training. More Mitochondria are produced in muscle cells. These are the site where energy is produced and if more sites are available then more energy can be produced and therefore the muscles are able to work for longer due to the increased energy that is available to them. 3 Paint a picture of the long-term effects of exercise on the Energy systems. Include: Increased Aerobic and Anaerobic Enzymes, Increased use of Fats for energy.(e.g.)More Aerobic Enzymes are produced through aerobic exercise. These are able to breakdown glucose more effectively and efficiently Give further details and provide reasons (Where appropriate).(e.g.)More Enzymes are also available to breakdown Fats. More body fat can be stored in muscles as a result of training. The enzymes mean that more fat can be used as an energy source, meaning that the athlete can compete for longer.

6 Long-Term effects on Muscles
Muscle Hypertrophy Stress causes muscle to tear Muscle repairs itself Tissue becomes bigger and better

7 Increased Tendon Strength
Adapt in the same way as muscles May also increase flexibility Cartilage thickens

8 Increased Myoglobin Muscles can store more Myoglobin as a result of regular exercise Binds to oxygen in muscles Improved Oxygen carrying capacity

9 Increased Mitochondria/Glycogen + Fat
Mitochondria – Produce ATP. Therefore can produce more energy Glycogen – Stored form of Glucose. Source of energy = More energy Fat - Triglycerides mean that you have a larger source of energy to draw from

10 Improved Muscle Strength
Overloading the resistance that muscles are moving Muscle adapts and gets stronger

11 Increased Lactate Tolerance
Lactic Acid causes fatigue Able to flush it out quicker and tolerate levels more Improved Capillarisation helps removal in Endurance activities

12 Long-Term Effects on the Skeleton
Increased Bone Calcium Bones strengthen due to the stress placed on them More calcium improves Bone Strength Less chance of Osteoporosis

13 Increased Ligament Stretch
Ligaments and Tendons become more flexible Ligaments are more pliable Increased ability to change shapes at joints

14 Thicker Hyaline Cartilage
Less chance of bones rubbing together Less Friction More efficient movement More Synovial Fluid

15 Long Term effects on Energy Systems
Increased Aerobic Enzymes Mitochondria increase in size More enzymes means that ATP can be broken down more effectively More enzymes to break down body fat

16 Increased Anaerobic enzymes
More Glycolytic Enzymes More efficient Anaerobic Glycolysis Body can buffer effects of Lactic Acid

17 Increased use of Fats Training means that Fat stores can be accessed more readily More Fat is stored in muscle tissue Can exercise for longer

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