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Cell Structures, Functions and Transport. Types of Cells Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells.

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structures, Functions and Transport. Types of Cells Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structures, Functions and Transport

2 Types of Cells Prokaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells

3 Prokaryotic cells Simplest cells No membranes around their nuclear material (DNA and RNA, genetic material) Prokaryotes include bacteria and some pond scum

4 Eukaryotic cells Eukaryotic cells have membranes around their nuclear material Membrane bound organelles Eukaryotes include protists, fungi, plants, and animals (almost all organisms)

5 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell

6 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Cell Membrane

7 Cell membrane

8 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 1. Cell Membrane Nickname: “The Gatekeeper” Function: forms outer boundary of the cell allows only certain materials to move into and out of the cell Parts: made up of a double layer of fats with some proteins scattered throughout

9 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Cell Membrane Cytoplasm

10 Cell membrane Cytoplasm

11 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 2. Cytoplasm Gel-like material inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleus Function: contains water, chemicals, and the various cell organelles Cytoplasm constantly moves or streams

12 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nuclear Membrane

13 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane

14 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 3. Nucleus Nickname: “The Control Center” Function: holds the DNA Parts: 1. Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomes 2. Nuclear envelope/membrane: surrounds nucleus in eukaryotic cells, has pores to let material in and out of the nucleus

15 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 3. Nucleus Parts: 3. Chromatin: Strands of genetic material found in the nucleus, made of protein and DNA

16 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nuclear Membrane

17 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria

18 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 8. Mitochondria Nickname: “The Powerhouse” Function: Energy formation Breaks down food to make ATP ATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy

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21 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Ribosomes Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nuclear membrane Ribosomes Mitochondria

22 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes

23 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 4. Ribosomes Function: makes proteins Found in all cells, prokaryotic and eukaryotic

24 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nuclear Membrane Ribosomes Mitochondria

25 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum

26 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 5. Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Nickname: “Roads” Function: The internal delivery system of the cell

27 Endoplasmic Reticulum 2 Types: 1. Rough ER: Rough appearance because it has ribosomes on its surface Function: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomes 2. Smooth ER: NO ribosomes Function: makes fats or lipids

28 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Complex Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nuclear membrane

29 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Body

30 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 6. Golgi Complex (Golgi Body) Nickname: The shippers Function: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cell Appearance: stack of pancakes Structure: stack of membrane-covered sacs

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33 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Body Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nuclear Membrane Mitochondria

34 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Body Lysosome

35 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 7. Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomes Nickname: “Clean-up Crews” Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells

36 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Body Lysosome Vacuole

37 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 9. Vacuoles Function: Help store things Vacuoles in animal cells are usually small sacs

38 Animal Cell Nucleus Nucleolus Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes Golgi Bodies Mitochondria Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nuclear Membrane Centrioles

39 Cell membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Body Lysosome Centriole (only 1 is shown)

40 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 10. Centrioles Function: Help with cell division Only found in animal cells Look like two small bundles of spaghetti arranged perpendicular to each other

41 Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!

42 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole

43 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 11. Vacuoles Function: stores water This is what makes lettuce crisp When there is no water, the plant wilts Animal cells have vacuoles to provide temporary storage Vacuoles in animal cells are smaller than plant vacuoles

44 Vacuole

45 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole Chloroplasts

46 Vacuole Chloroplast

47 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 12. Chloroplasts Function: traps energy from the sun to produce food for the plant cell Green in color because of chlorophyll, which is a green pigment

48 Chloroplasts

49 Section 7-2 Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Go to Section: Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole Chloroplasts Cell Wall

50 Cell wall

51 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function 13. Cell Wall Function: provides support and protection to the cell membrane Found outside the cell membrane in plant cells

52 Plant Cell Cell Membrane Vacuole Chloroplasts Cell Wall Nucleolus Nucleus Rough ER Smooth ER Golgi Bodies Mitochondria Ribosomes Cytoplasm Rough ER Nuclear Membrane

53 Cell wall Cell membrane Vacuole Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear envelope/membrane Chloroplast Mitochondria Golgi Bodies Ribosomes Smooth ER Rough ER Lysosome Cytoplasm

54 Comparing Plant and Animal Cells PlantAnimal

55 Comparing Plant and Animal Cells PlantAnimal Cell Wall Chloroplasts Large vacuole Centrioles Small vacuole Cell Membrane Cytoplasm Nucleus Nucleolus Nuclear membrane Mitochondria Ribosomes Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Golgi Bodies Lysosomes Vacuoles

56 Cell Transport It’s a question of control.

57 Who’s in control? Cells get nutrients, etc. from environment Release waste into same environment

58 Moving along…or not! Selective permeability: property of a cell membrane which allows some materials to pass through while keeping others out.

59 Diffusion Molecules move constantly Move from crowded conditions to less crowded conditions Particles diffuse in liquids and in gases

60 Diffusion cont’d Equilibrium: molecules of a substance are spread evenly throughout a space Molecules continue to move during equilibrium

61 Osmosis—Diffusion of H 2 O The diffusion of water through a cell membrane Most cells surrounded by water molecules and contain water molecules

62 Osmosis Cont’d What happened to egg cells in lab? If cells aren’t surrounded by pretty pure water, they’ll lose the water. No water molecules in corn syrup around eggs—so ….

63 Water tended to move out of the cells and dilute the corn syrup Cells became shriveled and yolks became firm

64 Place eggs in pure water and the process is reversed The eggs swell up and the yolks slosh around inside

65 Moving on… Particle movement across cell membrane by diffusion is called passive transport because… Cell doesn’t use energy to move the materials

66 Active transport: energy required to move large molecules through cell membrane Need help of transport proteins

67 Active transport is required to move substances from where there are small amounts to where there are large amounts

68 Cell membrane Cell membrane is composed of a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids with protein molecules scattered throughout Phospholipids make a bilayer with polar heads facing out and hydrophobic tails facing in

69 Cell membrane model

70 Lipids


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