8 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function Cell MembraneNickname: “The Gatekeeper”Function: forms outer boundary of the cell allows only certain materials to move into and out of the cellParts: made up of a double layer of fats with some proteins scattered throughout
9 Animal Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Cytoplasm Cell Membrane Section 7-2CytoplasmCell MembraneGo to Section:
11 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function CytoplasmGel-like material inside the cell membrane and outside the nucleusFunction: contains water, chemicals, and the various cell organellesCytoplasm constantly moves or streams
12 Animal Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Cytoplasm Nucleolus Section 7-2CytoplasmNucleolusNucleusCell MembraneNuclear MembraneGo to Section:
14 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function NucleusNickname: “The Control Center”Function: holds the DNAParts:Nucleolus: dark spot in the middle of the nucleus that helps make ribosomesNuclear envelope/membrane: surrounds nucleus in eukaryotic cells, has pores to let material in and out of the nucleus
15 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function NucleusParts:Chromatin: Strands of genetic material found in the nucleus, made of protein and DNA
18 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function MitochondriaNickname: “The Powerhouse”Function: Energy formationBreaks down food to make ATPATP: is the major fuel for all cell activities that require energy
26 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)Nickname: “Roads”Function: The internal delivery system of the cell
27 Endoplasmic Reticulum 2 Types:Rough ER:Rough appearance because it has ribosomes on its surfaceFunction: helps make proteins, that’s why it has ribosomesSmooth ER:NO ribosomesFunction: makes fats or lipids
30 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function Golgi Complex (Golgi Body)Nickname: The shippersFunction: packages, modifies, and transports materials to different location inside/outside of the cellAppearance: stack of pancakesStructure: stack of membrane-covered sacs
35 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function Lysosomes: circular, but bigger than ribosomesNickname: “Clean-up Crews”Function: to break down food into particles the rest of the cell can use and to destroy old cells
40 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function CentriolesFunction: Help with cell divisionOnly found in animal cellsLook like two small bundles of spaghetti arranged perpendicular to each other
41 Now let’s talk about structures only found in PLANT Cells!!
42 Plant Cell Figure 7-5 Plant and Animal Cells Vacuole Cell Membrane Section 7-2VacuoleCell MembraneGo to Section:
43 Eukaryotic Cell Organelles and Function VacuolesFunction: stores waterThis is what makes lettuce crispWhen there is no water, the plant wiltsAnimal cells have vacuoles to provide temporary storageVacuoles in animal cells are smaller than plant vacuoles
56 It’s a question of control. Cell TransportIt’s a question of control.
57 Who’s in control? Cells get nutrients, etc. from environment Release waste into same environment
58 Moving along…or not!Selective permeability: property of a cell membrane which allows some materials to pass through while keeping others out.
59 Diffusion Molecules move constantly Move from crowded conditions to less crowded conditionsParticles diffuse in liquids and in gases
60 Diffusion cont’dEquilibrium: molecules of a substance are spread evenly throughout a spaceMolecules continue to move during equilibrium
61 Osmosis—Diffusion of H2O The diffusion of water through a cell membraneMost cells surrounded by water molecules and contain water molecules
62 Osmosis Cont’d What happened to egg cells in lab? If cells aren’t surrounded by pretty pure water, they’ll lose the water.No water molecules in corn syrup around eggs—so ….
63 Water tended to move out of the cells and dilute the corn syrup Cells became shriveled and yolks became firm
64 Place eggs in pure water and the process is reversed The eggs swell up and the yolks slosh around inside
65 Moving on…Particle movement across cell membrane by diffusion is called passive transport because…Cell doesn’t use energy to move the materials
66 Active transport: energy required to move large molecules through cell membrane Need help of transport proteins
67 Active transport is required to move substances from where there are small amounts to where there are large amounts
68 Cell membraneCell membrane is composed of a double layer (bilayer) of phospholipids with protein molecules scattered throughoutPhospholipids make a bilayer with polar heads facing out and hydrophobic tails facing in