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Exam booklet 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7. glycolysis Calvin cycle/ light-independent stage Krebs cycle.

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Presentation on theme: "Exam booklet 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6 6 7 7. glycolysis Calvin cycle/ light-independent stage Krebs cycle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Exam booklet

2

3 glycolysis Calvin cycle/ light-independent stage Krebs cycle

4 They take part in different parts of the cell OR Reactions separated by membranes W /glycolysis in cytoplasm X / Calvin cycle in stroma of chloroplast Y / in matrix of mitochondria There are different enzymes for each pathway

5 X W and Y ATP;water; N AD / FAD All three needed for 2 marks

6 N AD / FAD / N ADP can accept H / be reduced Reduced N AD / FAD carries electrons to the electron transport chain / for oxidative phosphorylation Reduced N AD / FAD carries hydrogen ions / for oxidative phosphorylation / chemiosmosis Reduced N ADPH supplies hydrogen to the Calvin cycle / light independent stage / X Coenzyme A/CoA carries acetyl group to Krebs cycle/Y

7 2Fig. 5.1 is an electron micrograph of a leaf mesophyll cell. Several cell structures have been indicated by letters. Some of these produce ATP

8 (a) With reference to Fig. 5.1 (i) identify two organelles in ATP is produced and name these organelles 1. identifying letter ……………. name ………………………………………………………… 2. identifying letter ……………. name ………………………………………………………… F mitochondrion B chloroplast

9 (a) With reference to Fig. 5.1 (ii) explain why the cell is eukaryotic rather than prokaryotic ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...[2] Has a nucleus / nuclear membrane Has membrane bound organelles Has mitochondria / chloroplasts / vacuole

10 Photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation are two processes that occur in cells, such as that shown in Fig (b) Describe similarities and differences between oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………...[3] ATP synthesised in both With ATP synth(et)ase Both take place on / across membranes Series of electron carriers involved in both Electron flow in both Movement of H + across membranes in both Photophosphorylation in chloroplasts / grana / thylakoids, oxidative phosphorylation in cristae/ mitochondria

11 N AD, FAD N ADPH produced/ released absorbed/ fixed produced used (a) 3

12 Small quantity of ‘starter’ substance required Intermediates lead to many other series of reactions Easy to convert substances Without using too many enzymes

13 Any two from: Two membranes D N A Ribosomes Electron carriers Internal membranes have a large S.A.

14 E to cristae K to matrix EK

15 ETC/ transfer of electrons down chain stops Stops phosphorylation / ADP not phosphorylated Krebs cycle stops / no oxidised N AD/FAD /no substrate linked phosphorylation

16            

17 Pyruvate / any Krebs cycle intermediate ADP and phosphate form ATP Oxygen used to form water/as last electron acceptor

18 N itrogenous base Adenine Pentose / 5 carbon sugar Ribose Three phosphate groups

19 Any two from: Anabolic reactions D N A replication Protein synthesis Glycolysis Muscle contraction Cell division Cilia beating Active transport Electrical conduction Exocytosis Movement within cells, e.g. vesicles.

20 ATP synth(et)ase The first three listed from: Cyclic photophosphorylation N on-cyclic photophosphorylation Chemiosmosis Oxidative phosphorylation Substrate level phosphorylation

21 N AD/FAD involved in respiration 2 molecules of N AD reduced in glycolysis 1 molecule of N AD reduced in the link reaction 1 molecule of N AD reduced in the Krebs cycle 1 molecule of FAD reduced in the Krebs cycle Transfer hydrogen to inner mitochondrial membrane / cristae

22 N ADP involved in photosynthesis Reduced in non-cyclic photophosphorylation Hydrogen comes from photolysis Used in the Calvin cycle / light independent stage In conversion of GP to TP

23 QWC mark awarded if three of the following are spelt and used correctly: Photophosphorylation Glycolysis Calvin cycle Krebs cycle Cristae Photolysis Link reaction

24 Palisade mesophyll Spongy mesophyll

25

26 CO 2 released is a measure of respiration State two figures close to value of 2, therefore supports respiration is enzyme controlled

27 Only the value between 5 O C and 15 O C is close Photosynthesis does not support as values not near 2/ figures to illustrate this Photosynthesis is not just enzyme controlled

28 Light intensity is limiting factor Low rate of photosynthesis Rate of respiration increases at high temperature Rate of respiration is close to /exceeds rate of photosynthesis Sugars broken down more quickly than formed

29 Calvin cycle Any four from: rubisco RuBP plus CO 2 Unstable 6C compound formed [2 molecules of GP] GP to TP This uses ATP And reduced N ADP Some TP forms hexose sugars Some TP regenerates RuBP Can be an annotated diagram


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