Organisms transform the energy they acquire from their surroundings. Animals and plants are made up of eukaryotic cells
In eukaryotic cells Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the organelles that convert energy to forms that cells use for work
Mitochondria is found in nearly all eukaryotic cells: Plants Animals Fungi Most protists
Mitochondria is responsible for cellular respiration, the metabolic process that generates ATP (extracts energy from sugar, fats, and other fuels with the help of oxygen)
Rarely, some cells have a single large mitochondrian Mostly, cells have hundreds or thousands of mitochondria The number correlates with the level of metabolic activity (cells that are more active have more mitochondria)
Two membranes: Outer: smooth Inner: membranes called cristae, divides the mitochondria into the matrix
Found in plants and algae Location of the process of photosynthesis Converts solar energy to chemical energy by absorbing sunlight and using it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds such as sugars, from carbon dioxide and water
Photosynthesis takes place in two areas of the chloroplasts. grana – also called: thylakoids stroma chloroplast stroma grana (thylakoids) Granum: thylakoids stacked like poker chips
Specialized compartment in a cell bound by a single membrane Has enzymes that transfer hydrogen to oxygen, producing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)
Peroxisomes can also break down fatty acids Detoxify alcohol in the liver H2O2 is toxic, but peroxisomes also contain an enzyme that converts H2O2 to H2O Is able to do this because it is compartmentalized.
Plant seeds have a special kind of peroxisome: called glyoxysomes Stores in fatty tissue Have enzymes that convert fatty acids to sugar Sugar is then used as a source of energy
Peroxisomes are not part of the endomembrane system How do they grow? Using proteins Lipids from the ER Lipids synthesized in the peroxisome If it gets too large, it splits in two!