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The Cell.

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Presentation on theme: "The Cell."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Cell

2 Why are cells so small? Why can’t they be as huge as an hippo?

3 Overview: The Fundamental Units of Life
All organisms are made of cells The cell is the simplest collection of matter that can be alive Cell structure is correlated to cellular function For the Discovery Video Cells, go to Animation and Video Files.

4 -Lenses refract (bend) the light, so that the image is magnified
Concept 6.1: Biologists use microscopes and the tools of biochemistry to study cells In a light microscope (LM), visible light is passed through a specimen and then through glass lenses -Lenses refract (bend) the light, so that the image is magnified Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D Scanning electron microscopes (SEMs) focus a beam of electrons onto the surface of a specimen, providing images that look 3-D

5 Figure 6.2 The size range of cells.
Human height 1 m Length of some nerve and muscle cells 0.1 m Unaided eye Chicken egg 1 cm Frog egg 1 mm Human egg 100 m Most plant and animal cells Light microscopy 10 m Nucleus Most bacteria Mitochondrion 1 m Figure 6.2 The size range of cells. Smallest bacteria Super- resolution microscopy Electron microscopy 100 nm Viruses Ribosomes 10 nm Proteins Lipids 1 nm Small molecules 0.1 nm Atoms

6 Cell Fractionation Cell fractionation takes cells apart and separates the major organelles from one another

7 Figure 6.4 Research Method: Cell Fractionation
TECHNIQUE Homogenization Tissue cells Homogenate Centrifuged at 1,000 g (1,000 times the force of gravity) for 10 min Centrifugation Supernatant poured into next tube Differential centrifugation 20,000 g 20 min 80,000 g 60 min Pellet rich in nuclei and cellular debris Figure 6.4 Research Method: Cell Fractionation 150,000 g 3 hr Pellet rich in mitochondria (and chloro- plasts if cells are from a plant) Pellet rich in “microsomes” (pieces of plasma membranes and cells’ internal membranes) Pellet rich in ribosomes

8 What limits cell size? Surface to volume ratio
as cell gets bigger its volume increases faster than its surface area smaller objects have greater ratio of surface area to volume Alka-seltzer Demo As cell gets larger, volume increases cubically, but surface area only increases by the square. The volume of the cell is demanding… it needs exchange. The surface area is the exchange system… as cell gets larger, the surface area cannot keep up with demand. Instead of getting bigger, cell divides -- mitosis. s:v 6:1 ~1:1 6:1

9 Cell characteristics All cells: surrounded by a plasma membrane
have cytosol semi-fluid substance within the membrane cytoplasm = cytosol + organelles contain chromosomes which have genes in the form of DNA have ribosomes tiny “organelles” that make proteins using instructions contained in genes

10 Prokaryote bacteria cells Eukaryote animal cells
Types of cells - no organelles - organelles Eukaryote animal cells Eukaryote plant cells

11 Types of cells Prokaryotic vs. eukaryotic cells Prokaryotic cell
DNA in nucleoid region, without a membrane separating it from rest of cell Cell wall present in all (type differs) Eukaryotic cell chromosomes in nucleus, membrane-enclosed organelle Cell walls present in fungi and plants only More complex Membrane bound organelles present

12 The prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure, lacking a nucleus and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell.

13 Why organelles? mitochondria chloroplast Golgi ER
Specialized structures specialized functions cilia or flagella for locomotion Containers partition cell into compartments create different local environments separate pH, or concentration of materials distinct & incompatible functions lysosome & its digestive enzymes Membranes as sites for chemical reactions unique combinations of lipids & proteins embedded enzymes & reaction centers chloroplasts & mitochondria chloroplast Golgi Why organelles? There are several reasons why cells evolved organelles. First, organelles can perform specialized functions. Second, membrane bound organelles can act as containers, separating parts of the cell from other parts of the cell. Third, the membranes of organelles can act as sites for chemical reactions. Organelles as specialized structures An example of the first type of organelle is cilia, these short filaments act as "paddles" to help some cells move. Organelles as Containers Nothing ever invented by man is as complex as a living cell. At any one time hundreds of incompatible chemical reactions may be occurring in a cell. If the cell contained a uniform mixture of all the chemicals it would not be able to survive. Organelles surrounded by membranes act as individual compartments for these chemical reactions. An example of the second type of organelle is the lysosome. This structure contains digestive enzymes, these enzymes if allowed to float free in the cell would kill it. Organelle membranes as sites for chemical reactions An example of the third type of organelle is the chloroplast. The molecules that conduct the light reactions of photosynthesis are found embedded in the membranes of the chloroplast. ER

14 Cells gotta work to live!
What jobs do cells have to do? make proteins proteins control every cell function make energy for daily life for growth make more cells growth repair renewal

15 Building Proteins Organelles involved nucleus ribosomes
endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Golgi apparatus vesicles The Protein Assembly Line Golgi apparatus nucleus ribosome ER vesicles

16 Synthesizing proteins
cytoplasm cisternal space mRNA ribosome membrane of endoplasmic reticulum polypeptide signal sequence ribosome

17 Nucleolus Function ribosome production
build ribosome subunits from rRNA & proteins exit through nuclear pores to cytoplasm & combine to form functional ribosomes small subunit large subunit ribosome rRNA & proteins nucleolus

18 Types of Ribosomes Free ribosomes Bound ribosomes suspended in cytosol
synthesize proteins that function in cytosol Bound ribosomes attached to endoplasmic reticulum synthesize proteins for export or for membranes membrane proteins

19 Rough ER function Finalize protein formation and prepare for export out of cell (protein folding) protein secreting cells will have lots packaged into transport vesicles to golgi Which cells have a lot of ER? protein production cells like pancreas = production of digestive enzymes (rough endoplasmic reticulum from a cell of exocrine pancreas (88000X))

20 Golgi Apparatus Function finishes, sorts, tags & ships cell products
like “UPS shipping department” ships products in vesicles membrane sacs “UPS trucks” transport vesicles secretory vesicles Cells specialized for secretion? endocrine glands: produce hormones pituitary, pancreas, adrenal, testes, ovaries exocrine glands: produce digestive enzymes & other products pancreas, mammary glands, sweat glands

21 Making proteins Putting it together… cytoplasm nucleus cell membrane
transport vesicle Golgi apparatus smooth ER rough ER nuclear pore nucleus ribosome cell membrane protein secreted cytoplasm

22 Smooth ER function Membrane production Many metabolic processes
synthesis synthesize lipids oils, phospholipids, steroids & sex hormones hydrolysis hydrolyze glycogen into glucose in liver detoxify drugs & poisons ex. alcohol & barbiturates

23 Lysosomes Function Structure little “stomach” of the cell
digests macromolecules “clean up crew” of the cell cleans up broken down organelles Structure vesicles of digestive enzymes synthesized by rER, transferred to Golgi only in animal cells

24 Cellular digestion Lysosomes fuse with food vacuoles
polymers digested into monomers pass to cytosol to become nutrients of cell vacuole lyso– = breaking things apart –some = body

25 When cells need to die… Lysosomes can be used to kill cells when they are supposed to be destroyed some cells have to die for proper development in an organism apoptosis “auto-destruct” process lysosomes break open & kill cell ex: tadpole tail gets re-absorbed when it turns into a frog ex: loss of webbing between your fingers during fetal development Feedback mechanism There are sensors in the cell that monitor growth. They trigger self-destruct when they sense processes. Brown spots on leaves too. Virus infected plant cell auto-destructs and even cells around it to wall off virus.

26 Making Energy Cells must convert incoming energy to forms that they can use for work mitochondria: from glucose to ATP chloroplasts: from sunlight to ATP & carbohydrates ATP = active energy carbohydrates = stored energy ATP ATP +

27 Mitochondria & Chloroplasts
Important to see the similarities transform energy generate ATP double membranes = 2 membranes semi-autonomous organelles move, change shape, divide internal ribosomes, DNA & enzymes

28 Mitochondria Function cellular respiration generate ATP
from breakdown of sugars, fats & other fuels in the presence of oxygen break down larger molecules into smaller to generate energy = catabolism generate energy in presence of O2 = aerobic respiration

29 Mitochondria Almost all eukaryotic cells have mitochondria
there may be 1 very large mitochondrion or 100s to 1000s of individual mitochondria number of mitochondria is correlated with aerobic metabolic activity more activity = more energy needed = more mitochondria What cells would have a lot of mitochondria? active cells: • muscle cells • nerve cells

30 Chloroplasts Chloroplasts are plant organelles
class of plant structures = plastids amyloplasts store starch in roots & tubers chromoplasts store pigments for fruits & flowers chloroplasts store chlorophyll & function in photosynthesis in leaves, other green structures of plants & in eukaryotic algae

31 Who else divides like that?
Chloroplasts Function photosynthesis generate ATP & synthesize sugars transform solar energy into chemical energy produce sugars from CO2 & H2O Semi-autonomous moving, changing shape & dividing can reproduce by pinching in two Who else divides like that? bacteria!

32 Mitochondria & chloroplasts are different
Organelles not part of endomembrane system Grow & reproduce semi-autonomous organelles Proteins primarily from free ribosomes in cytosol & a few from their own ribosomes Own circular chromosome directs synthesis of proteins produced by own internal ribosomes ribosomes like bacterial ribosomes Who else has a circular chromosome not bound within a nucleus? bacteria

33 Endosymbiosis theory Mitochondria & chloroplasts were once free living bacteria engulfed by ancestral eukaryote Endosymbiont cell that lives within another cell (host) as a partnership evolutionary advantage for both one supplies energy the other supplies raw materials & protection Lynn Margulis From hypothesis to theory! Paradigm shifting ideas in evolutionary biology. Lynn Margulis U of M, Amherst

34 Evolution of eukaryotes
Endosymbiosis theory Evolution of eukaryotes

35 Food & water storage plant cells animal cells food vacuoles
central vacuole animal cells contractile vacuole

36 Vacuoles & vesicles Function little “transfer ships” Food vacuoles
phagocytosis, fuse with lysosomes Contractile vacuoles in freshwater protists, pump excess H2O out of cell Central vacuoles in many mature plant cells

37 Vacuoles in plants Functions storage
stockpiling proteins or inorganic ions depositing metabolic byproducts storing pigments storing defensive compounds against herbivores selective membrane control what comes in or goes out

38 Putting it all together, try labeling..
animal cells plant cells

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