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Breakdown of glucose Glycolysis Inside the Mitochondria Fermentation Cellular Respiration Spring 2013 - Althoff Reference: Mader & Windelspecht Ch. 8)

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Presentation on theme: "Breakdown of glucose Glycolysis Inside the Mitochondria Fermentation Cellular Respiration Spring 2013 - Althoff Reference: Mader & Windelspecht Ch. 8)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Breakdown of glucose Glycolysis Inside the Mitochondria Fermentation Cellular Respiration Spring Althoff Reference: Mader & Windelspecht Ch. 8) Lec 10

2 Cellular Respiration A _________ process that requires oxygen and gives off carbon dioxide. Most often it involves the ______________ _____________ of glucose C 6 H O 2  6CO 2 + 6H ENERGY CELLULAR RESPIRATION: C 6 H 12 O 6 is oxidized, O 2 is reduced

3 Some key, basic facts…..  Glucose is a _______________ molecule  The breakdown products, CO 2 and H 2 0, are low- energy molecules Facts 1 & 2 mean this is an ______________ process—a chemical reaction that releases energy As noted in previous slide…. A) Glucose is oxidized (losses electron) B) O 2 is reduced (gains electron)  The slower this reaction (cellular respiration) the more efficient the use of the glucose molecule

4 Expanding on  –slower is better The cellular respiration “pathway” allows the energy within a glucose molecule to be released ___________ so that the ATP can be produced gradually. If glucose molecule breakdown was all-at- once then most energy released (in the form of heat) would be lost Slow “pathway” results in 36 or 38 ATP molecules per glucose molecule or about ____ of the energy available in glucose.

5 NAD + and FAD: Important _____________ _____ = nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide _____ = flavin adenine dinucleotide Part of NAD + Cycle, a key _______ reaction in the process of cellular respiration Sometimes FAD subs for NAD + in the cycle Key here is that NAD + accepts ____________ plus a _______________ (H + ) and NADH results

6 ______ CYCLE

7 ____________: “splitting sugar” Occurs _____________ the mitochrondria Does NOT require the presence of oxygen, therefore glycolysis is ____________ (vs. aerobic = O 2 required) For all other phases of cellular respiration, the “action” is __________ the mitochondria where O 2 is present and used.

8 The ______________ of Cellular Respiration...  Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm to 2 molecules of pyruvate: GLYCOLYSIS  Pyruvate enters a mitochondrian (i.e., the “______________________” of the cell) and is oxidized, and NADH is formed. CO 2, a _______ ______, is removed. Cycle happens twice (2x) to process pyruvate molecules: ________________

9 …phases 3 & 4 of Cellular Respiration...  Cyclical series of oxidation reactions in the matrix of the mitochondrion result in NADH and FADH ( NAD + cycle ), _______________, and _________ __________. _______________producing total of 2 ATP molecules per glucose molecule ________ ___________ (i.e., 2 x = 2 ATP)  Series of “carriers” inside the mitochrondrial membrane move from one to the next electrons that were removed from the glucose and pass them until they are received by O 2, that eventually turns to water (H added). Result ___________. Known as the __________________________

10 GLYCOLYSIS Glucose  pyruvate PREP REACTION 2 1 C A C 3 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN 4 CYTOPLASMA MITOCHONDRION This is CELLULAR RESPIRATION ___________________________

11 Glycolysis  PYRUVATE Pyruvate is a ________________ in cellular respiration If O 2 is not available to the cell, ______________ occurs in the cytoplasm leading to “some serious consequences”… During fermentation, glucose is ______________ metabolized to lactate or to CO 2 and alcohol (it is species specific)…result can be net gain of only 2 ATP per molecule verses 32 – 34 under normal cycle just described

12 GLYCOLYSIS: outside the mitochondria Again, process where glucose metabolized to 2 pyruvate molecules This process is _________________ found—in other words, in all organisms regardless of domain –suggest common “ancestry”. It occurs in the __________. Remember, Bacteria & Archea (prokaryotic cell types) do not have mitochondria. Because eukaryotic cells have mitochondria, the citric acid cycle and electron transport chain __________________ ADVANCEMENTS that result in more efficient ATP production in this organelle type. Because in cytoplasma, may be why O 2 not required

13 Inside the Mitochondria - Summary Phases 2-4 occur __ mitochrondrion (not outside) Starts with pyruvate ( which resulted from glycolysis breaking down glucose molecule to 2 pyruvate molecules ) being brought in to this organelle Ends with ____ and ____ transported out to the cytoplasm The CO 2 _________ ( i.e., no energy required ) out of the cell and into the bloodstream H 2 0, a by-product of cellular respiration, can a) ____ in the mitochondria, somewhere else in the cell (cytoplasm), or b)enter the blood stream and ________ by the kidneys as needed.

14 Inside the Mitochondria – Details - A _____________________________ (so-named because it occurs before the citric acid cycle). It occurs in the ______ portion. Pyruvate goes to 2-carbon acetyl group attached to a coenzyme (CoA) and CO 2 is given off. ___________________________ takes place in the _________ portion. Also known as Krebs cycle (after ___________, 1930s). See inputs and outputs of this phase in the next slide.

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16 Inside the Mitochondria – Details - B ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN – is a series of ____________ that pass electrons ( what else?...dah ) from one to the other. “These” electrons brought in by NADH an FADH 2 molecules. Turns into a series of ___________ _____________ reactions Most of the carriers are ________________, a ____________ that is a tightly bound heme group with central atom of iron.

17 Inside the Mitochondria – Details – B-1 ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN con’t–the end of the chain is when O 2 accepts the electrons…therefore _____________ cellular respiration because no ATP are produce. Cristae—has a special arrangement here to allow pumping of ___ ions across the matrix to intermembrane space (recall this is a _______________ area = ________________) Here CHEMIOSMOSIS (ATD + P  ATP) takes place

18 ______________ and CHEMIOSMOSIS…. Some ______________ poisons stop CHEMIOSMOSIS Some “gum it up” by over-doing the H + gradient (i.e., over pump H + across membrane)…others reduce the pumping ability Either way, _____________________ is greatly and immediately reduced….thus, cells ______! !

19 Other ATP facts Any point in time, only enough ATP available collectively to sustain human life ___________ _______________. Mitochrondria produce approximately ___________________________ every day. _____________________. Muscle contractions remain…thus, stiff. Will hold contraction for up to 12 hours. Finally, things breakdown over hours.

20 Heads up exam question….  Read ECOLOGY FOCUS handout from Mader (2007) to understand how carbon monoxide poisoning “poisons”….. Be prepared to answer what is going on at the __________________ —can’t just say the CO is bad for you!!

21 FERMENTATION It is an _______________ process. 1) anaerobic means _____ oxygen used 2) it is a ________ process Example: lots of anaerobic species of bacteria. Many in your __________ (good thing—usually). Example: ___________ (cud-chewing animals) rely largely on these anaerobic bacteria to breakdown cell walls to obtain nutrient from plants grazed/browsed. Thus, ________________…ruminating that is!

22 LACTIC ACID FERMATION Can provide a _____________of ATP (therefore energy) initially…good example in muscles. ___________ lactate produced that is toxic to cells…they can’t handle it. Main effect of the _______ would be that it changes the ______ environment Muscles fatigue and cramp leading to __________ debt. Key to “paying off” oxygen debt is to get O 2 …that’s why you are still breathing heavy _______ extensive exercise.

23 Make sure you know these terms and where they “fit” in Pyruvate  Prep Reaction  Citric Acid Cycle  Glycolysis Electron Transport Chain ATP Fermentation Anaerobic vs. Aerobic Cellular respiration = 1  2  3  4 Mitochondrion—what happens “inside” and “outside” during cellular respiration Cristae Cytochrome  Electron transport chain

24 THIS _____ CELLULAR RESPIRATION !!!! ___ ATP ________ATP


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