Presentation on theme: "The study of cells. All living things are composed of cells Cells are basic units of life New cells come from pre-existing cells."— Presentation transcript:
The study of cells
All living things are composed of cells Cells are basic units of life New cells come from pre-existing cells
BUT…. How did the very first cell get here???? Viruses lack typical cell structure, use host cells to reproduce Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genetic material/can reproduce independent of cell
Small No Nucleus No membrane bound organelles Bacteria Then what do they have? Cell membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes DNA: Circular, not in nucleus Simple
Prokaryotic Structure DNA cytoplasm with ribosomes cell membrane
More complex Larger Contain membrane bound organelles Specialized compartment with a specific function DNA in nucleus in long strands Plant cells Animal cells Fungi (Yeast)
Cytoplasm (protoplasm): The fluid inside a cell, but outside the nucleus Cyclosis: Streaming movement of cytoplasm Oh where, oh where do we find cell organelles? “Holds” organelles in place chemical reactions Site of cellular chemical reactions
Mitochondria Outer and inner membranes Release energy from food to make useable energy (ATP) Animal cells Plant cells Contain their own DNA! Inner membrane folded (Increased surface area) Found in:
Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis Only in plant cells Convert light energy to chemical bond energy Contain their own DNA!
Chloroplasts Animal cells don’t have chloroplasts!!!
Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis Can be free in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum
Endoplasmic reticulum “ER” Assembles components of cell membrane Protein modification A system of membranous sacs
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Protein synthesis Rough: Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Smooth:No ribosomes Contains enzymes needed for cell Ex. enzymes for lipid synthesis RER SER
Smooth ER Rough ER Rough ER
Marks proteins for use in cell or export (adds address w/proteins) Produces digestive enzymes Golgi Who? apparatus, complex, bodies
Golgi body Golgi body
DNA instructions for building protein chains leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm. assorted vesicles Golgi body smooth ER rough ER Chains are assembled on ribosomes in cytoplasm.
Lysosome Packaged by Golgi body Membranous sac filled with digestive enzymes “Suicide Sacs”
Vacuole Cell storage: Water Food Wastes Plants:One large central vacuole Animals:Few small vacuoles Vacuoles are crucial in single-celled organisms to maintain homeostasis
Cell Wall Provides support Provides shape Made up mostly of cellulose Animal cells don’t have!
Cell wall Animal cells don’t have cell walls!!!
Centriole Used in cell division Animal cells only
Centriole Plant cells don’t have centrioles!!!
Cilia: Flagella : Locomotion Moving substances across surface of cell Locomotion
Plasma membrane/cell membrane Plant AND animal cells Controls what goes in and out of cell Protection Support
Cell membrane Cell membrane
Main component of cell membranes Lipid Bilayer lipid bilayer fluid
Cell (Plasma) Membrane Structure ☼ 2 layers of phospholipids (lipids with phosphate groups attached) ☼ Proteins - embedded in lipid layers- for transport or receptors ☼ Carbohydrates - attached to surface proteins or lipids – markers ☼ Lipids & Proteins can move along membrane = “Fluid” FLUID MOSAIC MODEL of Cell Membrane
Receptors recognize substances (hormones etc.) and allow them to enter cell
Animal CellsPlant Cells Cell Walls Chloroplasts Centrioles Golgi Bodies Vacuoles NO YES NO 1 or YES Many Small Few Large