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The study of cells. All living things are composed of cells Cells are basic units of life New cells come from pre-existing cells.

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Presentation on theme: "The study of cells. All living things are composed of cells Cells are basic units of life New cells come from pre-existing cells."— Presentation transcript:

1 The study of cells

2 All living things are composed of cells Cells are basic units of life New cells come from pre-existing cells

3 BUT…. How did the very first cell get here???? Viruses lack typical cell structure, use host cells to reproduce Mitochondria and chloroplasts have their own genetic material/can reproduce independent of cell

4 Small No Nucleus No membrane bound organelles Bacteria Then what do they have? Cell membrane Cytoplasm Ribosomes DNA: Circular, not in nucleus Simple

5 Prokaryotic Structure DNA cytoplasm with ribosomes cell membrane

6 More complex Larger Contain membrane bound organelles Specialized compartment with a specific function DNA in nucleus in long strands Plant cells Animal cells Fungi (Yeast)




10 Cytoplasm (protoplasm): The fluid inside a cell, but outside the nucleus Cyclosis: Streaming movement of cytoplasm Oh where, oh where do we find cell organelles? “Holds” organelles in place chemical reactions Site of cellular chemical reactions

11 Cytoplasm

12 Controls cell processes Contains hereditary information (DNA) Nucleolus:Ribosome formation Nucleus:

13 Nucleus Nucleolus

14 Mitochondria Outer and inner membranes Release energy from food to make useable energy (ATP) Animal cells Plant cells Contain their own DNA! Inner membrane folded (Increased surface area) Found in:

15 Mitochondria

16 Chloroplasts Site of photosynthesis Only in plant cells Convert light energy to chemical bond energy Contain their own DNA!

17 Chloroplasts Animal cells don’t have chloroplasts!!!

18 Ribosomes Site of protein synthesis Can be free in cytoplasm or attached to endoplasmic reticulum

19 Ribosomes

20 Endoplasmic reticulum “ER” Assembles components of cell membrane Protein modification A system of membranous sacs

21 Rough endoplasmic reticulum Protein synthesis Rough: Ribosomes Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Smooth:No ribosomes Contains enzymes needed for cell Ex. enzymes for lipid synthesis RER SER


23 Smooth ER Rough ER Rough ER

24 Marks proteins for use in cell or export (adds address w/proteins) Produces digestive enzymes Golgi Who? apparatus, complex, bodies

25 Golgi body Golgi body


27 DNA instructions for building protein chains leave the nucleus and enter the cytoplasm. assorted vesicles Golgi body smooth ER rough ER Chains are assembled on ribosomes in cytoplasm.

28 Lysosome Packaged by Golgi body Membranous sac filled with digestive enzymes “Suicide Sacs”

29 Lysosomes

30 Lysosome

31 Vacuole Cell storage: Water Food Wastes Plants:One large central vacuole Animals:Few small vacuoles Vacuoles are crucial in single-celled organisms to maintain homeostasis

32 Vacuole

33 Cell Wall Provides support Provides shape Made up mostly of cellulose Animal cells don’t have!

34 Cell wall Animal cells don’t have cell walls!!!

35 Centriole Used in cell division Animal cells only

36 Centriole Plant cells don’t have centrioles!!!

37 Cilia: Flagella : Locomotion Moving substances across surface of cell Locomotion

38 Cilia

39 Plasma membrane/cell membrane Plant AND animal cells Controls what goes in and out of cell Protection Support

40 Cell membrane Cell membrane

41 Main component of cell membranes Lipid Bilayer lipid bilayer fluid

42 Cell (Plasma) Membrane Structure ☼ 2 layers of phospholipids (lipids with phosphate groups attached) ☼ Proteins - embedded in lipid layers- for transport or receptors ☼ Carbohydrates - attached to surface proteins or lipids – markers ☼ Lipids & Proteins can move along membrane = “Fluid” FLUID MOSAIC MODEL of Cell Membrane


44 Receptors recognize substances (hormones etc.) and allow them to enter cell


46 Animal CellsPlant Cells Cell Walls Chloroplasts Centrioles Golgi Bodies Vacuoles NO YES NO 1 or YES Many Small Few Large

47 Cell wall Cell membrane Vacuole Mitochondria Ribosomes Golgi body Nucleus Nucleolus Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Cytoplasm Rough endoplasmic reticulum Lysosome Chloroplasts

48 Golgi body Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Nucleolus Nucleus Cytoplasm Rough endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria Free ribosomes Lysosomes Centrioles Cell membrane Cilia

49 Methylene blue Staining Techniques Applying stain makes cell structures more visible Can be useful in identifying organisms Example:


51 Organelle Cell Tissue Organ Organ System Organism

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