Presentation on theme: "Structures of Eukaryotic Cells. Nucleus: 1.-Brain of cell, the cells control center 2.-Surrounded by another membrane/nuclear envelope 2.- Contains DNA."— Presentation transcript:
Structures of Eukaryotic Cells
Nucleus: 1.-Brain of cell, the cells control center 2.-Surrounded by another membrane/nuclear envelope 2.- Contains DNA -has code for making all proteins/traits of cell 4.- Contains pores for items to move in and out.
Nuclear Envelope: -outside of nucleus, studded with pores Nucleolus: -circular structure within nucleus -makes ribosomes Nucleoplasm: -cytoplasm inside the nucleus
Chromatin: 1.-loosely coiled DNA found within the nucleus -each human cell has 46 pieces of DNA 2.-can tightly coil into a bow tie shaped “chromosome”
Chromosomes are made up of genes. Genes: -segments of DNA which code for specific proteins These proteins determine our traits.
Ribosomes: The cells “workbench” Job: Makes proteins, in their linear form, by assembling amino acids in the correct order based on DNA’s code.
Ribosomes are made up of RNA and proteins. Found attached to the endoplasmic reticulum or Free floating in the cytoplasm
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER): -Known as the “cells subway system -Transports proteins around the cell
The E.R is a made up of a series of interconnected, hollow channels. Two types of E.R: 1. Smooth E.R. -has no ribosomes attached. -responsible for making new membranes for the cell 2.Rough E.R. -has ribosomes attached -helps with protein synthesis
1.Proteins, made by the ribosomes 2.Travel through the hollow channels of the rough ER into the smooth ER. 3. The end of the smooth ER pinches off around the protein forming a “transporting vesicle”
4. Transporting vesicle transports the newly formed protein to the golgi body.
Golgi Complex, Apparatus or Bodies -a stack of flattened membranes clustered in one area. -Made up of a collection of transporting vesicles.
The golgi is known as the Fed-Ex man Job: Collects, stores, modifies and packages materials it receives from the transporting vesicles/ER and then deliver them to where they need to go. This is where a protein gets it 3D shape
Example: Insulin production in a pancreas cell
Mitochondria: 1. -cell’s powerhouse 2. -the place were the cell converts food and oxygen into energy. 3. -found in all eukaryotic cells~plant-like and animal like.
4. -site of cellular respiration sugar + oxygen ATP energy + carbon dioxide + water Form of energy used by a cell to do “work”. -12 to 1000 mitochondria per cell -plant cells have less than animal cells. Why? -less active -require less energy -Which cells in our body would have the most mitochondria? -muscle cells ~ very active
Mitochondria are made up of 2 membranes: -outer membrane -inner membranes known as cristae.
Chloroplast: - Found only in plant-like cells -site of photosynthesis Sun + CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2
CHLOROPLAST: -Trap energy of the sun and convert it into sugars which can be stored by the plant or broken down in the mitochondria into ATP energy. Plant store sugar in their fruits, stems, and roots.
ROY G BIV Absorbs: -all spectrums of light but green is reflected.
Lysosomes: Nickname: Clean Up Crew or Suicide Sack Job: Organelles which contain digestive enzymes made by the ribosomes and processed in the golgi. Two Jobs: 1. Fuse to an old or damaged cell organelle, injects its enzymes into it and digest the old organelle.
3.Lysosomes in an older or damaged Cell breaks open and releases enzymes into the Cytoplasm ~ digesting the cell from the inside out. Example: lifespan RBC’s 120 days WBC’s 8 days Sperm 5 days
See last page of note package: Formation of a lysosome: 1. Ribosomes make a digestive enzyme 2. Enzymes travel through ER 3. Smooth ER pinches off and dig. enzyme is contained in a transporting vesicle. 4. Transporting vesicle fuses with golgi 5. Golgi modifies enzyme giving it a 3D shape 6. Section of golgi moves away with enzyme inside it ~ now a lysosome.
Vacuoles: Storage area for cell Stores excess water, food or waste.
Plant-like cells have 1 or 2 large central vacuole which stores excess water or sugars Animals-like cells have many small vacuoles which store excess water and waste.
Plastids: specialized vacuoles in plants Chloroplast: Stores chlorophyll Leucoplast: Stores starch Chromoplast: Stores color pigments
See last page: Centrioles: used by animal cells to help with cell division
Plant and Animal Cell Comparison Plant cells have: Animal cells have: cell wall and membrane cell membrane chloroplastno chloroplast 1 or 2 large vacuolemany small vacuoles No centrioles1 pair of centrioles Has plastidsNo plastids Rectangular in shapeRoundish in shape Small # of mitochondriaLarge # of mitochondria
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cell Comparison Prokaryotic CellsEukaryotic Cells -No nucleus-Has a nucleus -DNA in 1 circular loop-DNA in several linear pieces -Has no membrane bound organelles-Has membrane bound organelles -both have cytoplasm -both have ribosomes Ex/ BacteriaEx/ all protist, fungi, plants and animals