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Cell Structure and Function Lecture 8b. The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells. All cells are derived from pre- existing cells, i.e.,

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Presentation on theme: "Cell Structure and Function Lecture 8b. The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells. All cells are derived from pre- existing cells, i.e.,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Cell Structure and Function Lecture 8b

2 The Cell Theory All living things are composed of cells. All cells are derived from pre- existing cells, i.e., capable of reproduction Cells are the smallest unit of life

3 Characteristics of All Cells A cell membrane encloses a fluid cytoplasm where most of the chemistry of the cell occurs. DNA is the genetic code. This genetic code is essentially the same for all cells. The basic biological molecules and biochemical pathways are the same in all cells.

4 Tree of Life Eukaryote Prokaryote

5 Prokaryotic Cell

6 Typical Animal Cell Eukaryotic Animal Cell

7 Typical Plant Cell Eukaryotic Plant Cell

8 Plasma Membrane

9 Membrane Functions Enclose cell Surround organelles Provide attachment sites Cell-cell recognition

10 Membrane Size & Structure Keeps things in/out Large area = more regulatory control Permits compartments Passing membrane may be important

11 Compartments Isolate materials Concentrate materials Allow concentration gradients Diffusion high concentration low concentration membrane

12 Membrane Structure Lipid bilayer Highly motile Life measured in hours Embedded proteins Life measured in days

13 Membrane Structure

14 Endocytosis

15 Exocytosis

16 Nucleus

17 Rough and Smooth ER

18 Make proteins

19 Respiratory center of cell

20 Package and secrete products

21 1.Suicide sack 2.Digest food 3.Remove worn organelles

22

23 Cell Walls

24 Chloroplasts

25 Central Vacuole of a Plant Cell

26 Endosymbiotic Hypothesis mitochondrion chloroplast

27 Mitochondria & Chloroplasts Both are membrane bounded Both are relatively large (bacterial size) Endosymbiotic Hypothesis Mutualistic relationship between different “organisms” True?

28 Mitochondrion Very prominent Most cells have hundreds (plural: mitochondria) Powerhouse of the cell (fuel molecules to ATP)

29 Mitochondrion Metabolism Glucose (a sugar) to ATP ATP = universal energy “currency” ADP + energy ATP

30 concentration gradient

31 Chloroplast Site of photosynthesis Similar to mitochondrion Even larger Produces organic compounds (these store energy)

32 Animal Plant mitochondria chloroplasts vacuole Vacuole Functions Storage Support Water Regulation Both cell types have membrane-bounded organelles

33 Endosymbiosis Hypothesis A A prokaryote ingested some aerobic bacteria. The aerobes were protected and produced energy for the prokaryote Chloroplasts Aerobic bacteria Mitochondria Cyanobacteria Prokaryote Animal Cell Plant cell B C D A N N N N

34 Endosymbiosis Hypothesis B Over a long period of time the aerobes became mitochondria, no longer able to live on their own A B C D Chloroplasts Aerobic bacteria Mitochondria Cyanobacteria Prokaryote Animal Cell Plant cell N N N N

35 Endosymbiosis Hypothesis C Some primitive prokaryotes also ingested cyanobacteria, which contain photosynthetic pigments A B C D Chloroplasts Aerobic bacteria Mitochondria Cyanobacteria Prokaryote Animal Cell Plant cell N N N N

36 Endosymbiosis Hypothesis D Cyanobacteria became chloroplasts, unable to live on their own A B C D Chloroplasts Aerobic bacteria Mitochondria Cyanobacteria Prokaryote Animal Cell Plant cell N N N N

37 1.What is the function of: Mitochondria Nucleus Golgi apparatus Lysozome Ribosomes Smooth and rough ER Cellular Visions: The inner life of a cell (video) Inquiry


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