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The mitochondrial genome HUMAN NUCLEAR GENOME 24 chromosomes (haploid) 3200 Mbp 30,000 genes Mitochondrial genome 16569 bp 37 genes Human genome = nuclear.

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Presentation on theme: "The mitochondrial genome HUMAN NUCLEAR GENOME 24 chromosomes (haploid) 3200 Mbp 30,000 genes Mitochondrial genome 16569 bp 37 genes Human genome = nuclear."— Presentation transcript:


2 The mitochondrial genome

3 HUMAN NUCLEAR GENOME 24 chromosomes (haploid) 3200 Mbp 30,000 genes Mitochondrial genome 16569 bp 37 genes Human genome = nuclear genome + mitochondrial genome

4 1-10  m small Mitochondria are present in the cytoplasm of all eukaryote cells of animals and higher plants and also in some microorganisms (algae, fungi, protozoa).

5 Endosymbiont Hypothesis endosymbiont hypothesis: originally proposed in 1883 by Andreas Schimper, but extended by Lynn Margulis in the 1980s. Mitochondrial ribosomal RNA genes and other genes show that the original organism was in the alpha-proteobacterial family (similar to nitrogen-fixing bacteria) Evidence: –mitochondria have their own DNA (circular) –the inner membrane is more similar to prokaryotic membranes than to eukaryotic. By the hypothesis, the inner membrane was the original prokaryotic membrane and the outer membrane was from the primitive eukaryote that swallowed it. –mitochondria make their own ribosomes, which are of the prokaryotic 70S type, not the eukaryotic 80S type. –mitochondria are sensitive to many bacterial inhibitors that don’t affect the rest of the eukaryotic cell, such as streptomycin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin. –mitochondrial protein synthesis starts with N-formyl methionine, as in the bacteria but unlike eukaryotes. Most of the original bacterial genes have migrated into the nucleus. Eukaryotes that lack mitochondria generally have some mitochondrial genes in their nucleus, evidence that their ancestors had mitochondria that were lost during evolution.

6 Mitochondrial Genome Small circular genome >1000 copies/ cell 16569 bp44% G+C H- StrandGuanines L- StrandCytosines D- Loop7S DNA

7 Mitochondrion plays a role in: Energy production  Oxidative phosphorilation (OXPHOS) Maintaining the intracellular homeostasis Protecting the rest of the cell from reactive oxygen species (ROS) Apoptosis  important development and disease


9 Mitochondria-the point of no return-to live or to die casp9 Bcl2 Apaf1 ATP Caspase 3 Apoptosis AIF substrates AIF Nuclear apoptosis Smac/ Diablo XIAP Pro-caspase 3

10 Genome Structure The mitochondrial genome is a circle, 16.6 kb of DNA. A typical bacterial genome is 2-4 Mbp. The two strands are notably different in base composition, leading to one strand being “heavy” (the H strand) and the other light (the L strand). Both strands encode genes, although more are on the H strand. A short region (1121 bp), the D loop (D = “displacement”), is a DNA triple helix: there are 2 overlapping copies of the H strand there. The D loop is also the site where most of replication and transcription is controlled. Genes are tightly packed, with almost no non-coding DNA outside of the D loop. In one case, two genes overlap: they share 43 bp, using different reading frames. Human mitochondrial genes contain no introns, although introns are found in the mitochondria of other groups (plants, for instance).

11 The Human Mitochondrial Genome Circular ~ 16 kb (some plants ~100 kb!) Crowded (~40 genes) 13 genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation + other genes (DNA pol, rDNAs, tRNAs) Most proteins in mitochondria are imported from cytoplasm 100,000 copies of mitochondrial DNA in ovum 2 - 10 copies/mitochondrion

12 Organization of the human genome Limited autonomy of mt genomes mt encodednuclear NADH dehydrog 7 subunits>41 subunits Succinate CoQ red0 subunits4 subunits Cytochrome b-c1 comp1 subunit10 subunits Cytochrome C oxidase 3 subunits10 subunits ATP synthase complex2 subunits14 subunits tRNA components22 tRNAsnone rRNA components 2 componentsnone Ribosomal proteins none ~80 Other mt proteinsnonemtDNA pol, RNA pol etc.


14 The Human Mitochondrial Genome expression unlike nucleus genome… Transcription controlled by nuclear proteins: 3 promoters- * H1: H-strand; complete transcription of one strand of mtDNA * L: L-strand; complete transcription of light strand of mtDNA * H2: Synthesis of 2 rRNAs Transcripts then procesed into individual genes prior to translation

15 Coding- Non-coding 37 genes 9 genes 28 genes L- strand H- strand 24 genes specify a mature RNA product 2 mitochondrial rRNA molecules(23S and 16S) 22 tRNA molecules 13 genes specify polypeptides

16 H strand enriched in G L strand enriched in C

17 Mitochondrial Genetic code is somewhat different… Human Mito Standard AGA Ter Arg AGG Ter Arg AUA, AUU Met Ile UGA Trp Ter Plastid genetic code: GUG, UUG, AUU, CUG can initiate translation UGA encodes trp at low efficiency in E. coli

18 Mitochondrial inheritance pattern - uniparental maternal in animals Paternal inheritance in gymnosperms, some angiosperms

19 Mitochondrial disease (1) Incidence from 1:10.000 to 1:4000 Affecting most energy demanding tissues Central nervous system Heart Skeletal muscle This is not always the case Mitochondrial diabetes Liver and kidney disease Pearson syndrome Specific, but highly variable clinical features with various gene defects

20 Clinical presentation of OXPHOS defects Unexplained combination of neuromuscular and/ or non- neuromuscular symptoms Progressive course Involvement of seemingly unrelated tissues or organs –Clinical symptoms either isolated or in combination, may occur at any stage –Frequent feature; increasing number of organs involved in the course of the disease –While initial symptoms usually persist and gradually worsen, they may occasionally improve or even disappear, as other organs become involved

21 Particular Genetical Processes Heteroplasmy Relaxed replication Mixed population of normal and mutant mitochondrial genomes in one cell mtDNA is degradated and replicates continuously, even in non dividing cells

22 mtDNA Mutations (1) Affecting mitochondrial protein synthesis Single deletions  always one or more tRNA genes Point mutations  in rRNA or in tRNA  Associated with: multiple system disorders, lactic acidosis, “ragged red fibers” in muscle biopsy gomori trichrome staining

23 mtDNA Mutations (2) In mtDNA protein coding genes LHON Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase genes) –ND 4 G11778A –ND 6T14484C –ND 1G3460A NARP/MILSATPase 6T8993G >100 mutations within 37 genes

24 Mitochondrial-inherited diseases Example Leigh’s Syndrome Cause - point mutation in either ATPase 6, mt tRNA (5 dif), NADH dehydrogenase 5, cytochrome oxidase III Result- ATP deficiency Phenotype: Motor & Intellectual regression, Death often within 2 years of onset

25 Mitochondrial DNA mutations in human genetic disease (Wallace Sci. Amer. 277:40)

26 Mitochondrial disease (3): deletions

27 Pearson syndrome is currently recognized as a rare, multisystemic, mitochondrial cytopathy. Its features are refractory sideroblastic anemia, pancytopenia, defective oxidative phosphorylation, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and variable hepatic, renal, and endocrine failure. Death often occurs in infancy or early childhood due to infection or metabolic crisis. Patients may recover from the refractory anemia. Older survivors have Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS), which is a mitochondropathy characterized by progressive external ophthalmoplegia and weakness of skeletal muscle.Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS)

28 Mitochondrial-inherited diseases Most decrease ATP-generating ability of the mitochondria Affect function of nerve and muscle cells Severity of symptoms vary with amt of wt mtDNA present In ragged red fiber disease: 2 - 27% of mtDNA is wt (heteroplasmic)

29 nDNA mutations affecting mtDNA stability/ expression A primary nuclear gene defect causes secondary mtDNA loss or deletion  tissue dysfunction Mendelian inheritance Factors for mtDNA maintenance and repair all encoded by nuclear genes Only 1 nDNA mutation reported  mtDNA (succinate dehydrogenase gene)

30 adPEO (1) adPEO autosomal dominant progressive external opthalmoplegia Autosomal dominant Onset 18-40 years RRF Multiple mtDNA del in post-mitotic tissue Basal ganglia and cerebral cortex > 60 % Skeletal and ocular muscle + heart > 40 % Anu Suomalainen and Jyrki Kaukonen, Am J Med Genet 2001

31 Mitochondria and Aging The “mitochondrial theory of Aging”: as we live and produce ATP, our mitochondria generate oxygen free radicals (electrons “leak” from electron transport chain) that attack our mitochondria and mutate our mitochondrial DNA. Result: decrease in ATP needed for normal cell function Evidence: -5000 bp deletion in mtDNA absent in heart muscle before age 40 Present in increasing frequency in older heart muscle -rats fed on restricted diets - live longer - fewer oxygen free radicals generated - fewer mitochondrial mutations accumulate Elevated mtDNA defects in people with degenerative diseases (Parkinson’s, Huntingtons, Alzheimers, ALS...)

32 mtDNA Mutations (3) Somatic mitochondrial DNA mutations  with age in healthy individuals Old people typically harbour a wide range of different mtDNA deletions in post mitotic tissues; skeletal muscle, myocardium, brain Overall amount of mutant mtDNA very low One cell  high percentage of one mutant mtDNA Different cells  different mutations –Threshold effect  OXPHOS

33 Bcl-2-follicular lymphoma IgH Bcl-2 T(14; 18) Bax-colon cancer >50% somatic frameshift mutations in the Bax gene colon cancers of the microsatellite mutator phenotype Accelerates tumorigenesis with reduced apoptosis in Bax-/- mice Bcl-2 family & diseases constitutive expression

34 In Search of Eve Mitochondrial DNA doesn’t undergo recombination It evolves faster than nuclear DNA (~1 change per 1,500-2,000 years) One theory estimates that all non-Africans descended from “Eve” who lived 150,000 years ago in Africa

35 Mitochondrial DNA and Evolution The genetic diversity of African populations was confirmed by later studies However, proponents of the out-of-Africa hypothesis assumed that genetic diversity reflected only the age of a population rather than population size. –Africa has greater genetic diversity because its prehistoric population was probably larger than elsewhere. Recently John Relethford and Henry Harpending have argued that differences in ancient population size could mimic a recent African origin of modern humans. The data reflect population dynamics, they say, and do not support one model of modern human origins over another.

36 Molecular analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the northern Caucasus Igor V. Ovchinnikov Anders Götherström Galina P. Romanova Vitaliy M. Kharitonov Kerstin Lidén William Goodwin

37 Main informations The neandertal mtDNA placed outside the mtDNA pool of modern humans. The divergence between Neandertals and modern humans estimated to have occured between 317,000 and 741,000 years ago.

38 September 11 and Mitochondria DNA Typing If cell is damaged, chromosomal DNA disintegrates Heavily damaged samples tested by “profiling” mitochondrial DNA Every cell in the human body contains thousands of copies of maternally inherited mtDNA. "We use mitochondrial DNA when there's almost nothing left. It's our last hope," - Phil Danielson, assistant professor of molecular biology at the University of Denver As of July 2002 - the medical examiner's office had identified 1,229 victims, or 44 percent of the total number of people listed as dead (500 using solely DNA technology)

39 Mitochondrial disease (3)

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