Presentation on theme: "Comparing Plant and Animal Cells OCS Biology Mrs. Bonifay."— Presentation transcript:
Comparing Plant and Animal Cells OCS Biology Mrs. Bonifay
Plant Cells vs Animal Cells: Similarities ► Both animal and plant cells have cell membranes that enclose the cell. ► Both are filled with cytoplasm, a gel-like substance containing chemicals needed by the cell. ► Both have a nucleus where DNA is stored. ► Both have ribosomes, protein builders of cells.
Similarities Continued ► Both plant and animal cells have mitochondria that use oxygen to break down food and release energy. ► Both kinds of cells have vacuoles that contain food, water, or waste products. (Animal cells usually have many more vacuoles than plant cells do.)
A Few More Similarities ► Both have endoplasmic reticulum, where a system of tubes transports proteins. ► Both have Golgi bodies to distribute proteins outside of the cell.
Plant and Animal Cells: Differences ► Plant cells have cell walls that provide structure. Animal cells do not have cell walls. ► A few large animal cells have more than one nucleus, but plant cells ALWAYS have just one. ► Plant cells have chloroplasts for photosynthesis. Animal cells do not.
More Differences: ► Animal cells use mitochondria for energy production. Plants primarily use chloroplasts to produce energy. ► Animal cells tend to have many small vacuoles. Mature plant cells may have only one large vacuole. ► Animals cells have lysosomes, but plant cells do not.
Cells & Energy ► Cells get energy originally from the sun. ► In plant cells, chloroplasts trap light energy and change it into chemical energy. ► The chemical energy is stored in bonds between atoms of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. ► Atoms are the basic unit of matter. Matter is anything that has mass and takes up space.
Cells & Energy (continued!) ► Chemical bonds hold two or more atoms together to form molecules of sugar. ► Both plant and animal cells break down these molecules by breaking the chemical bond. When the bonds are broken, energy is released. ► Cells can either use the energy or store it. ► Mitochondria in plant and animal cells use oxygen to release this energy.
Cells & Energy (more!) ► Cells store energy from food in ATP molecules. When the cell needs energy, the ATP is broken down to release it.
Cells Using Information ► The nucleus is the control center of plant and animal cells. ► The nucleus contains DNA. ► DNA and RNA molecules work together to make proteins. Cells require thousands of protein molecules in order to work well.
More DNA ► DNA in a cell’s nucleus determines what kind of cell it it. ► DNA has instructions for all of the cell’s activities. ► DNA doubles when a cell divides.